Jelen Ryan



1500 BCE - 500 BCE

Four main Vedic collections written in Sanskrit-Rg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, and Atharva Veda. Indo Aryan community. Rg Veda consists of 1028 hymns which were complied together into one collection around 1200-1000 BCE. References of Soma and sacrificial rituals.


900 BCE - 700 CE

Two great epics, the Mahabharata of 100,000 verses and the Ramayana at 25,000 verses. Written in Sanskrit. Developed originally from oral tradition and stories about the Great War which might have taken place around 9000 BCE


600 BCE - 500 BCE

"Jaina derives from the verbal root to conquer. Jaina monks must fight an ascetic battle to conquer the senses and karma. " One of the first major royal of Jainism was the Mauryan emperor Condragupta I (321-297 BCE). This ruler was also involved in the major schism of Jainism into two com munities, named Svetambra (white-clad) and Digamarasa (sky-clad-that is naked). The Svetambra were and continue to be based primarily in the western Indian region of Rajasthan and Gujarat, whereas the Digambaras have always been most prominent in Karnataka, and were also influential for a time in Tamil Nada."


531 BCE - 700 CE

Between this period Buddhism "was the major cosmopolitan religion throughout Asia and maybe the world." "Siddhartha Gautama born in the foothills in about 566 BCE. Siddhartha Gautama achieved enlightenment and nirvana one night in 531 BCE in the town of Bodh Gaya."

Puranas and Temple/Theistic Hinduism

300 CE - 1200 CE

Puranas in English means ancient traditions. New groups devoted to Vinsu and Siva. The Puranas consists of eighteen major Puranas and eighteen sub-major. The Puranas discuss topics such as cosmology, royal genealogies, society, dharma, sacred pilgrimage sites, yogic practices, town planning, grammar, and poetry. Major Puranas make up about 4000 verses.


600 CE - 1000 CE

"Around 610 CE Muhammad began receiving revelations in which, were connected and make up the Qur'an. His revelations continued up until Muhammad's death in 632 CE. First 150 years Islam was the most dynamic, expanding religious movement the world has ever seen."

Bhakti Movement and the Medieval period

600 ce - 900 ce

The Bhakti movement developed in the southern region of Tamil Nada. Bhakti saints used poetry in order to "evoke each deity in full and sensuous detail." The Bhakti movement focused on the development of a "close relationship with the god conceived in a personal and particularized manner." The Bhakti movement "Is a way of participating or sharing in divine being, however that is understood, of tasting and enjoying god's presence."

Contemporary India

1500 CE - 2018 CE

"800 Million people, eighteen official languages, and strong regional traditions. Rebirth of Yajnavalkya's Upanisadic perspective. Indian religions remain alive to their modernity and to their new political settings, new international audiences, and new possibility of technology in the modern world. Over the past decade debates about the nature and role of religion in temporary Indian society have taken a renewed urgency."