National Association of Real Estate Boards (which trademarked the name Realtor) issued
ethical guidelines that specified that a Realtor “should never be instrumental in
introducing to a neighborhood a character of property or occupancy, members of any race
or nationality, or any individual whose presence will be clearly detrimental to property
values in a neighborhood.
The NAACP was formed partly in response to the continuing horrific practice of lynching and the 1908 race riot in Springfield, the capital of Illinois and resting place of President Abraham Lincoln. ... The NAACP seeks to remove barriers of racial discrimination.
Restrictive covenants can limit a variety of option s for homeowners, from landscaping to structural modification to circumstances of sale and rental. Racially restrictive convents, in particular, are contractual agreements among property owners that prohibit the purchase, lease, or occupation of their premises by a particular group of people, usually African Americans.
The majority of
African-American Chicago residents settled in the
South Side neighborhood and, due to discriminatory
real estate practices and threats of violence in white
neighborhoods, one almost entirely black section of
the South Side came to be referred to as the Black
In the early 1940s whites within residential blocks formed "restrictive covenants" which served as legal contracts restricting individual owners from renting or selling to black people. The contracts limited the housing available to black tenants, leading to the accumulation of black residents within The Black Belt, one of the few neighborhoods open to black tenants
African-American family by the name of Shelley purchased a house in St. Louis, Missouri. At the time of purchase, they were unaware that a restrictive covenant had been in place on the property since 1911.
United States Supreme Court in 1954, Brown v. Board of Education declared state laws which established separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. In Virginia, the strong presence of the Byrd Organization paved the way for Massive Resistance which was characterized by the opening of private, apartheid schools and the flight of white, city residents into the neighboring counties.