Human Evolution

Species

Sahelanthropus

7000000 bc

7 mya - Chad - forest - only cranium - int. FM - small canines - int. enamel thickness - small face - giant brow - 380-320cc

Orrorin Tugenensis

6000000 bc

6 mya - kenya - woods - fragments - large canines - curved fingers - femur angle -> biped

Ardipithecus

5800000 bc - 4400000 bc

5.8-4.4 mya - ethiopia - woods - fragments - small brain - big face - opposable toe - long arms - curved fingers - may have sciatic notch? - arboreal quadraped - projecting canines - thin enamel - limited tooth SD - sectorial premolar

australopithecus africanus

3000000 bc - 2000000 bc

3-2 mya - south africa - difficult to date - some SD - curved pelvis - lumbar curve - biped/climber - int. canines - large incisors, molars - 420cc - ate trees, bushes, grass seeds, roots, tubers

Paranthropus

2500000 bc - 1400000 bc

2.5-1.4 mya

Homo Habilis

2400000 bc - 1600000 bc

2.4-1.6 mya - e. africa - oldowan tools - 500-800cc - small brow - smaller face v. australopithecus - reduced molar - biped similar to australopitheus/paranthropus - fossilized foot - bigger incisors, smaller molars

australopithecus sediba

2000000 bc - 1800000 bc

2-1.8 mya - s. africa - D: small teeth, longer thumb - Prim. pelvis, short legs - Lee Burger

paranthropus robustus

1900000 bc - 1400000 bc

1.9-1.4 mya - south a. - not as large as boisei (nutcracker)

Homo Erectus

1900000 bc - 600000 bc

1.9 mya - 600 kya in africa - indonesia, 50 kya - diff. biped - long distance travel - climate adaptations - diverse, hot, dry, cold - tools - diff. life history - more meat , hunting - cooking? - coop? - 750-1251cc - thick cranial bones - marked post orbital constriction - frontal keeling - pronounced ridges - transverse occipital torus

archaics

700000 bc - 100000 bc

700-100kya - acheulean hand ax common - 1100-1450cc - broad parietal - reduced post orbital constriction - broad frontal - smaller, seperate ridges, smaller face, less prognastic - large upper occipital - large nasal apature - inflated cheeks - no canine fossa

AMH

200000 bc - 150000 bc

200-150kya - speciation event in africa, happen everywhere, argued by Chris Stringer - out of africa - no inbreeding - supported by morphological evidence- small brow - canine fossa - chin- no retromolar space - small nose - globular brain case, taller - small face - vertical forehead - min prognasithism - 1200-1600cc - thinner bones - shorter torso, arms

Neanderthalis

200000 bc - 30000 bc

200-30kya - first part of last interglacial period - europe and west asia - first found in 1856 in Neander Valley, germany - 1245-1750cc - larger temporal - low forehead - long low skull - thin walled skull - huge face - mid face prognathism - small mastoid - heavy brow, more curved - occipital bun - lack of chin - smaller molar - taurodont roots, merged pulp cavity - large incisors - dental wear, used as tools - shorter and heaviest v. H ~ ergaster - barrel chest - adapted for cold, hunting - teeth grew fast

Specimen

Laetoli Footprints

3500000 bc

3.5 mya - 30m long - tripod, non opposable toe - arch - 3 hominins - afarensis - volcanic ash

Dikika

3300000 bc

3.3 mya - ethiopia - baby a. afarensis - ape like teeth - 8ya, 6 for H - brain only 75% of adult

Australopithecus - lucy

3200000 bc

3.2 mya - hadar, ethiopia - 40% complete - biped - thick enamel - smaller canine - chimp brain - curved pelvis - long arms but shorter than b/f - long fingers, slight curve - pointed fingers

Paranthropus aethiopicus

2500000 bc

2.5 mya - black skull - kenya - 420 cc - large sagittal crest - giant jaw - chewing

Taung Child

2500000 bc

2.5mya - 2.5 - 3.5 ya - H brain - small face - FM central - africanus - biped

paranthropus boisei

2300000 bc - 1400000 bc

2.3-1.4 mya- east a. - biped - nutcracker man - sagittal crest - 500cc - 1.3m tall - giant molar and premolar -> root, tuber, nuts - small incisors

homo rudolfensis

1900000 bc

1.9 mya - kenya - Richard Leakey - broader face, longer, less prognathic - 800cc

Homo Erectus

1900000 bc - 1800000 bc

first find - Java - Dubois - 1891- thicker cranial bone - sagittal keel - lower cranial vault - nuchal torus more pronounced

Dmanisi

1700000 bc

1.7 mya - leaves africa for georgia - oldowan tools - mix of habilis and erectur - short 1.5 m - 650cc - projecting canines - rel. long legs - hunting, coop, food sharing, really old guy

Homo Ergster

1700000 bc

1.7 mya - kenya - 900cc - large brows - projecting nuchal torus - higher cranial vault, but long and low v. H - reduced prognathism - smaller teeth

Turkana Boy

1600000 bc

1.6 mya - kenya - ergaster - most complete - 8-11ya - grew up faster than H - 160cm, 45 kg - modern limb prop. - 900cc

Atapuerca

850000 bc

like dmanisi - gran dolina

Homo Heidelbergensis

700000 bc - 200000 bc

700-200kya - mauer, germany - type species is a jaw...

Peking Man

600000 bc - 400000 bc

600-400 kya - Zhoukoudian cave, giant hyenas

Omo Kibish

195000 bc

195kya - ethiopia - earliest AMH - reduced brow, globular case - small face - chin
110kya in s. africa
120 kya in egypt
50kya - australia
40kya - china

Herto Cranium

160000 bc - 154000 bc

160-154kya - ethiopia - AMH - 1450cc- rugby player

AMH in Levant

120000 bc - 90000 bc

120-90kya
Skhul - 10 ppl, deliberate burial - older man
Qafzeh - 20 ppl, some elaborate burials - diff from neanderthal - young female

homo floresiensis

90000 bc - 12000 bc

the hobbit - indonesia - found in 2003 - 10 ppl - not fossilized - 400cc- thick bone - short - thin brow - erectus or habilis ? -

Oase, Romania

35000 bc

35kya - AMH in Romania

Mladec, Czech

31000 bc

31kya - AMH

Cro-Magnon

28000 bc

28kya - AMH in France

Lagar Velo

24500 bc

24.5 kya - portugal - H cranium - large mastoid - no chin - short distal limbs - harris lines - 4yo - link b/w human and Neanderthal?

Homo Features

Oldowan Tools

2500000 bc

2.5 mya, more at 2mya, microware: skinning meat and cutting bone - simple and expediant - flakes -

fire

1600000 bc

1.6 mya - east a. - baked earth
1.5 mya - south a. - charred bone
800kya - most definitive - gesher, isreal - seeds, wood, bones

acheulean tools

1600000 bc - 1400000 bc

1.6-1.4mya

middle stone age/middle paleolithic

500000 bc

500kya - smaller tools - flakes v. cores - bigger toolkit - regional var.

Wooden Spears

400000 bc

400kya - Schoningen, germany - not throwing - big game hunters

Mousterian

250000 bc - 40000 bc

250-40 kya - neanderthals - flakes and prepared cores - no handax - spear points, scrapers, attached to wooden handles - no projectile

Katanda

180000 bc - 75000 bc

180-75kya- central africa - barbed bone point

art

70000 bc

symbolic material culture - red ocre
s. africa - ostrich shell beads - complex bone tools - red ocre

AMH Out of Africa

50000 bc

50kya

euro revolution

30000 bc

30kya - blades, mining, fishing, grindstones, art