conflict between kingdoms of troy and Mycenaean Greece.
hostilities between the states of Laconia and Messenia were constant, even to the point of Sparta officially declaring war
They were conquered by the Persians. When the Ionians decided to revolt they asked Athens and other Greek cities for help.
but stayed behind with a small force including his 300 Spartans in order to allow the rest of the Greek army to escape.
had fought as allies in the Greco-Persian Wars between 499 and 449 B.C. In the wake of the Persian retreat, however,
Alexander’s forces were greatly outnumbered in men but not in experience or the determination for revenge and to claim Persia’s great wealth, much of it plundered.
Just 20 years old, Alexander claimed the Macedonian throne and killed his rivals before they could challenge his sovereignty.