This was the war between Troy and Mycenaean Greece. The war started because of the order of elopement of Queen Helen of Sparta by Paris, the Trojan prince, and the Greeks demanded her return. The Greeks won the war and gained Queen Helen of Sparta back.
This was the longest running war in Ancient Greek history. The most likely reason for this war was that Sparta wanted the rich fertile plains of Messenia, so this started the war. Another possible reason is that Messenians were known for their trading and dominating of other places. So, if the Spartans were afraid of the Messenians taking over, they probably would have started a war, in a way, in self defense. There were multiple insidents considering how the war started in the mythological version. The first insident states that at the temple of Artemis Limnatis both the Spartans and the Messenians were celebrating. All of a sudden, the Messenians took the Spartan women. When King Teleklos of Sparta tried to create difficulties for the Messenians, he was killed in the process. After this incident the Spartan women comitted suicide. The Messenian version of the story is that the King of Sparta dressed up men as virgins, which held daggers. Once this plan was discovered, the King of Sparta was killed in a fight. The second incident happened in 764 BC. It involved the Spartan Euphaenos and the Messenian Polychares. Polychares had given the responsibility of his cows to Euphaenos, who sold them and killed Polychares' son. In result of this incident, Polychares began killing every Lacedaemonian who came into his city-state. One famous person is a Spartan poet by the name of Tyrtaeus. The evidence for dating this war comes from this poet. Sparta won the war, which makes sense because the whole civilization of Sparta was based off of being skilled fighters. Even women were trained to be tough there, which is pretty impressive considering how women were treated back then. Most likely the Spartans gained the rich, fertile soil of Messenia, or the right to be left alone.
When the Ionians decided to start to rebel against the Persians who had taken over their territory, they asked some other Greek city-states to help. The other city-states sent in weapons and ships, which unfortunately got destroyed. The plan with the other Greeks got the Persians agrivated, so in turn they decided to conquer Greece to "keep them under control." In 490 BC, the King of Persia, Darius the 1st, decided to make a move and attempt at conquering the Greeks. He gathered a large army and set sail to the Bay of Marathon. During the battle of Marathon, the Persians quickly realized that even though their army was bigger, Greece had hard working skilled fighters. In the end, the Greeks won the battle and killed about 6,000 Persian fighters, while Persia only killed about 192 Greek fighters. One famous person from the battle of Marathon was named Pheidippides. He was a Greek fighter who ran the whole 25 miles from Marathon Bay to Athens to spread the news that the Greeks had won the battle at Marathon Bay. From winning the battle, the Greeks most likely gained freedom of not being taken over by Persia in result of that battle.
Persia was not satisfied from the first war, and who would be if you were in Persia's position, for Persia lost the battle of Marathon. So now, Darius' son, King Xerxes, was seeking out revenge on Greece. He gathered an army of about 200,000 fighters sent along with about 1,000 warships. The battle of Thermopylae started, again, with Greece having the smaller army, this time, led by Leonidas, the Spartan King. Greeks, however, were the better fighters. In the battle, the Greeks killed off thousands of Persians fighters. It was going all for the Greeks yet again untill the Persian army found a way to sneak up on the Greeks from behind. After holding up their ground as best as they could, the Greeks finally gave in and lost the battle of Thermopylae. At the battle of Salamis, it was a big battle between ships. This was a battle that took place off the coast by Salamis. Even though the Persian ships were a lot bigger than the ships of the Athenians, the fighters of Athens found their footing by ramming into the Persian ships and sinking them. All in all, the Greeks won the battle of Salamis. The final battle of the war, the battle of Plataea, occured near Plataea. This was a battle fought on foot, and it indeed was won by the Greeks. Famous people in this war were both of the leaders of both armys, who were Leonidas, the Spartan King, and King Xerxes. What the Greeks gained from winning this war is the ability to keep most of their city-states.
As Athens grew more powerful, Sparta grew more fearful of the growing empire. It is thought that this could have been the reason for the war. Some battles in this war include the battle of Aegospotami, the battle of Myilene, and the battle of Amphipholis. A famous person involved with this battle is the historian Thucydides. What the Athenians lost from losing the war was their city iself.
Alexander's parents were King Philip ll and Queen Olympias. There was a rumer that King Philip ll was actually Zeus, who was the leader and ruler of all Greek gods. When Alexander was only 12 years of age, he tamed a wild horse named Bucephalus. This horse became his battle partner for the rest of his life. He was tutored by Aristotle when he was 13 years of age. When he was 16, Alexander's father went to battle against the Byzantiums. In the year of 338 BC, Alexander led a cavalry during the Battle of Chaeronea. In the year of 336 BC, Alexander is dubbed king of Macedonian after Philip was killed. Famous battles that Alexander fought included the Battle of Chaeronea, the Battle of Issus, and the Battle of Tyre. Later, Alexander became the king of Persia. He ended up having to kill one of his close friends, Cleitus, because of Cleitus insulting his new Persian cultures and beliefs. Alexander died in 323 BC most likely because of typhoid fever.