After the French Revolution, Napoleon as First Consul.
Fought between England and France, took place in France. France was divided, with some places belonging to England, like Aquitaine. French forces started winning under Joan of Arc, who was later burned at the stake by the English in 1431 at age 19 for being accused of heresy and witchcraft. England won.
Civil war in England for which house is to be the ruling house. Fought between the House of Lancaster (red rose) and the House of York (white rose). Tudor house ended up taking the throne.
The French army crossed the Alps, and caught Italy in between tension between France and Spain. Spanish/German mercenaries sacked Rome. After this, the Italian Renaissance faded away, but their culture still spread around the rest of Europe.
Catherine de' Medici feared the growing influence of Coligny over the king and decided to kill the Huguenots in Paris at the marriage of Henry of Navarre. This was the massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day. Coligny was killed; Henry of Navarre escaped by temporarily changing his religion.
The eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion. The war was fought between the royalists, led by Henry III of France; the Huguenots, led by Henry of Navarre; and the Catholic League, led by Henry Duke of Guise.
France was trapped between two Habsburgs: HRE and Spain. Richelieu wanted to make France a dominant power, so they tried to break up the HRE without France becoming directly involved. This war decentralized the HRE, limited the Habsburgs, and led to the rise of the Bourbon dynasty. All German states could have religious sovereignty.
Fought between Charles I and Parliament over who had more power.
A French rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy; caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
"Glorious Revolution" - resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of William of Orange and Mary to the English throne. It was achieved without war. Gave more power to Parliament.
League of Augsburg against Louis XIV in his expansionist wars. Ended by the Peace of Ryswick.
Ireland was subjected in the Battle of the Boyne, where James II was supported by a French army but lost.
Balance of Power limits French expansion. Fight for the Spanish throne after declining Habsburgs. Louis XIV's last war. This upsetted the balance of power, so Europe opposed it. Louis is defeated. Ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.
Between Maria Theresa of Austria and Frederick of Prussia. Ended by Treaty of Aix La-Chappel, which said that Frederick would get to keep Silesia, but Maria Theresa got everything else.
Fought by European powers (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) against Napoleon and the French Republic.
United Irish societies rose to drive out the English and establish an independent republic. They were defeated.
Austria, Russia, Britain
The British fleet, under Lord Nelson, annihilated the combined fleets of France and Spain in their attempt to invade Britain.
Napoleon defeats the Russian and Austrian armies. Peace was made with Austria with the Treaty of Pressburg.
As Napoleon’s desire to control Germany was clear after Austerlitz, Prussia went to war with France unaided and alone. The French destroyed them at Jena and Auerstadt.
To control all of Europe’s trade for the Continental System, Napoleon just needed Spain. He made his brother Joseph king of Spain in 1808. The Spanish saw Napoleon as a godless villain and used guerrilla. The British sent the Duke of Wellington to support the Spanish guerrillas which started the Peninsular War.
Liberation from under Napoleon's rule.
Napoleon's Grand Army vs. Russia. The Russians outnumbered the Grand Army. Napoleon won the battle, but lost many men. Russia left in okay condition.
The allies drove Napoleon back and defeated him immediately after he returned from being defeated in Russia.
Napoleon is defeated here in Belgium by the Duke of Wellington after he escapes from his exile and raises an army.
Leaders include Alexander Ypsilanti, with assistance from Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and several other European powers against the Ottoman Empire.
Fought between Russia and the West over gaining control over the areas of the declining Ottoman Empire. Sardinia helps GB, France, and Austria in fighting Russia so that they might help with Italian unification. Prussia remains neutral to avoid a two-front war and to stay on Russia's good side.
Austria wages war against Sardinia. France assists Piedmont as per Plombieres. At first Sardinia is winning, but then France backs out because the papal states got involved and France didn't want to get on Pope's bad side. Austria loses. Sardinia gets Lombardy. France gets Nice & Savoy, but Austria keeps Venetia.
War fought by Prussia against Denmark because Denmark wanted the German state of Schleswig. Prussia, allying with Austria, won.
The Prussians turned against Austria, and wanted Holstein. Sardinia helps the Prussians against Austria. The Prussians won, got Holstein and more land. Sardinia gets Venetia.
In the making peace, Prussia makes sure to be kind to Austria so as to not make an enemy.
Bismarck offends France by trying to put a Prussian on the throne of Spain. (Hohenzollern v. Bourbon). Bismarck writes the Ems Dispatch, provoking France to do something stupid, which they do by declaring war. French army has to leave Rome to fight Prussia. France lost, and Bismarck pronounced a German empire. Italy recaptures Rome is unified.
France is defeated within weeks and is left extremely embarrassed. Plus, by the Treaty of Frankfurt, they have to pay a huge war indemnity and German troops won't leave until they pay it. They also have to give up Alsace and Lorraine and recognize the 2nd Reich: a unified Germany. Outlines World War I.
Russia was badly defeated and embarassed.
Contributed to Serbian and Russian hostility towards Austria.
The French heroically fought back the Germans, keeping them out of Paris.
They are no longer a part of the Central Powers (Austria and Germany).
Bolsheviks consolidate power and suppress all opponents.
Finland was defeated but escaped Communist rule.
to crush the Soviets and to gain the wheat harvests of the Ukraine and the oil fields of the Caucasus, Hitler invaded the U.S.S.R. Stalin was caught completely by surprise and initially seemed incapable of mounting a defense.
Without warning, the Japanese launched a heavy air raid on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The American fleet was crippled. The U.S. and G.B. declared war on Japan on Dec 8. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on U.S., as did the Axis puppet states. Thus the war became a global struggle.
Massive German forces assaulted Stalingrad. Stalin ordered that he city be held at all costs. Hitler was just as firm in ordering that the city be taken. After weeks of battle, the Red Army suddenly counterattacked. They trapped the Germany army, killed a huge number, and the German army surrendered. After Stalingrad, the Soviet Union was on the offensive for the remainder of the war. Stalingrad became a turning point in the history of the war.
GB and US invade Europe
U.S. dropped 2 atomic bombs on Japan and the Soviet union declares war on Japan
Confrontation between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
The oil issue turned increasingly political during this war, when the Arab states embargoed the shipment of oil to the states supporting Israel. The OPEC cartel cut back production and quadrupled oil prices. The oil shortage and price escalation, after int’l monetary difficulties and devaluations of the dollar undermined currencies, accelerated inflation, and seriously interrupted the spectacular growth of W. European economies.
If a person truly repented, they could buy an indulgence and be spared purgatory.
Pope Boniface VIII says that there is no salvation outside of the Roman church and every human is subject to its rule.
Victory for Philip IV of France, who goes on to elect a new pope at Avignon. This starts the Babylonian Captivity of the church, causing it to lose much of its prestige. Rome goes on to elect another pope as well.
A church council met at Pisa, demanding that both popes of the schism step down. They held an election for a new pope, but neither of the previous two stepped down, so now there were three.
The council aimed to end the schism, end heresy, and to reform the church. There were little successes in reformation. To discourage heresy, Hus was burned at the stake. The 3 popes were persuaded to resign, and Martin V was elected.
The Gallican (French) Church said councils have supremacy over popes, declared independence from the Holy See, ended annate payment to Rome, and forbade papal intervention in the appointment of prelates (bishops).
This forms modern Spain. The Jews and Moors were expelled.
Muslims are removed from the Iberian Peninsula.
Pope gave the French king (Francis I) power of the Gallican Church.
King Francis I of France agreed with Pope Leo X in the Concordat of Bologna which rescinded (overturned) the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438. Therefore, the pope still received annates but the king appointed the French bishops and abbots. The fact that the kings of France could control their nation’s clergy was a reason that later, they never tried to turn Protestant.
By the Edict of Worms.
A rebellion stirred by Luther saying each individual could understand what is right and wrong, and that the Christian man was the freest. Luther was very much against the rebellion, urging the princes to repress them completely because the princes gave him protection.
Declaring the King of England the ruler of the church in England.
"On the Institutes of the Christian Faith", which explained Calvinism.
The conciliar issue was raised again. A group of bishops believed the bishops of the Catholic Church, when assembled, had an authority superior to that of the pope. The popes managed to resist the idea of limiting papal power. No act of the council can be valid without acceptance by the Holy See.
The Council of Trent thus preserved the unity of the papacy.
The Council wished to state the Catholic doctrine and to reform abuses. They did not wish to reconcile with the Protestants because the movement had already gone too far.
It declared justification to be by both works and faith, the seven sacraments, the state of the priesthood being above the laity, confession and absolution, transubstantiation, the validity of church services (not just the Bible), and the Bible could only be in Latin. The right of individuals to interpret the Bible was abolished, celibacy of the clergy was maintained, and monasticism upheld, the existence of purgatory affirmed, and the veneration of saints. It acted against the abuse of indulgences but upheld the principle. The abuse of pluralism, or one man holding numerous church offices at the same time, was checked.
Defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire. Although originally started for religious motives soon after the start of the Protestant Reformation, its members eventually intended for the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire.
Gave German princes the right to choose the religion of their area. Had to choose between Protestantism and Catholicism.
Issued by King Henry IV of France; grants religious rights to French Protestants.
Between the Spanish and the Dutch, in which the Netherlands was partitioned. There were 7 provinces north of the line, henceforth known as the Dutch. The 10 provinces south of the line were known as the Spanish Netherlands.
English Parliament forced Charles I to sign it. Said:
1. Kings cannot raise taxes with consenting parliament.
2. No imprisonment without a cause
3. No soldiers may be quartered upon the citizenry,
4. Martial law may not be used in time of peace.
Ended the Wars of Religion in Europe.
Barred Dutch ships from carrying goods to England for other countries, attacking Dutch maritime supremacy.
Charles II agreed to join Louis in his impending war against the Dutch; and Louis promised to pay him during the war and hoped Charles would rejoin Catholic Church.
Required all officeholders to take communion in the Church of England and made it impossible for Catholics to serve in the gov’t or navy.
Ended Louis XIV's expansionist wars.
Persecution of French Protestants
No law could be ignored by the king (as the Test Act had been), no army or taxes could be initiated without Parliamentary consent, and no one could be arrested without legal process. William III accepted this.
Allowed English Protestant Dissenters to practice their religion but still excluded them from politics.
To manage funds for wars with William III against France.
No Catholic could be king of England, but excluding the descendants of James II, who were later called Pretenders
Merging of Scotland and England's political systems.
Issued by Charles VI, allowed Maria Theresa to succeed him.
Regulated the British subjects in India, whom the Indian gov’t wasn’t allowed to control. So, the company was left with trade but its political activities were brought under parliamentary control.
Called together by Louis XVI's financial manager, Calonne, to accept his plan to have, instead of the taille (land tax), a general tax would fall on all landowners without exemption, he would end all internal tariffs, and confiscate of some church property. He also wanted to give all landowners representation through establishing provincial assemblies.
After the Parlement of Paris refuses Calonne's plan to tax the nobles, Louis XVI and his financial advisor de Brienne have to call the Estates General, which would meet in May.
Said that they are to be the National Assembly and they wouldn't disband until they made a constitution.
A group of women stormed to Versailles and demanded bread and for the royal family to live in Paris.
Set up a French national church. Parish priests and bishops were to be elected, but were forbidden to acknowledge any papal authority. The clergy received income from the state.
Declared France a constitutional monarchy.
Said that if Leopold II, HRE, took military steps to restore order in France, then all other powers would join him. Empty threat; done mostly so Leopold could rid himself of the emigres.
By a majority of one.
Said that if the king and queen of France were harmed at all, Prussia and Austria would attack. Not an empty threat this time.
In French colonies.
Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety had antagonized all significant parties and the working-class couldn’t support him. A group in the Convention “outlawed” Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 17, 1794), and he was guillotined.
Set up a constitutional republic, called the Directory.
It was a turning point of the republic. The Directory asked for Bonaparte’s help, who sent a general, Augereau, to Paris. While he was there, the Directory annulled the first free elections in France in 1797 so that there wouldn't be a royalist majority in the Legislative Assembly.
Signed by France with Austria, negotiating peace.
Bonaparte decided to strike indirectly at England, by threatening India in an invasion of Egypt. In 1798, he landed in Egypt, which was part of the Ottoman Empire. This started a second war. Napoleon abandoned his troops and became First Consul.
Where Sieyes and Napoleon had soldiers drive the legislators from the chambers in order for Napoleon to seize power.
The British, suppressing the Irish rebellion of 1798. The separate kingdom of Ireland and its parliament ceased to exist. This was incorporated in the Act of Union of 1801, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which lasted until 1922.
Signed by Napoleon. The autonomy of the prerevolutionary Gallican church came to an end. The pope received the right to dispose French bishops. Public worship was allowed. The pope, by signing the concordat, now recognized the republic. The Vatican agreed to let go of the old tithes and church lands. All Napoleon had to do was state Catholicism as the religion of the majority of the French. He also disarmed the counterrevolution. The Revolution was no longer godless.
The Russians withdrew from the war with France. Napoleon again defeated the Austrians in Italy, who signed the treaty of Lunéville, which confirmed the treaty of Campo Formio. A year later, peace was made with Britain. Dissolves the 2nd Coalition.
Napoleon has himself elected Consul for life.
Temporarily ended hostilities between France and Britain during the French Revolution. Under the treaty, Britain recognized the French Republic. With the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the 2nd Coalition.
Napoleon declares France an Empire, and himself the Emperor.
Napoleon took Venetia and gave it to Italy. Napoleon made Bavaria and Wurttemburg into kingdoms and the HRE was finally dissolved. He gathered the German states into a kind of federation, the Confederation of the Rhine, where Napoleon was the “protector”.
Forbade the importation of British goods into his territory or his allies, hoping to cripple them economically. This established the continental system.
Treaty where Napoleon condemned England and promised Alexander to be Emperor of the East. The two countries allied, mainly against Britain. Alexander accepted Napoleon as Emperor of the West. Prussia was not invited to discuss this treaty.
Said that if any neutral ship had stopped at a British port earlier, it would be confiscated if seen at a Continental harbor.
Spanish Constitution as a result of the nationalism against Napoleon. It was modeled after the French constitution of 1791.
Signed by Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain, in which each power bound themselves for 20 years in their alliance against France.
By the Allies.
Signed with the Bourbons and the allies which restored France’s pre-war boundaries. They did not take vengeance nor wish to handicap the country they put their hopes on.
A gathering of all states of Europe. All important matters were decided by the 4 Great Powers. France was represented by Talleyrand. Castlereagh, Metternich, and Alexander were present. Prussia was represented by Hardenberg.
They put a border of strong powers along Eastern France. Created the German Confederation. Holy and Quadruple Alliances. Austria got Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Raising protective tariffs to protect English landowners.
Passed by the English Parliament. It forbade employment of children under nine. Limited work day of children over nine to 12 hours. Banned employment of women/children in mining.
Developed by Metternich, who felt threatened by the rise of German nationalism, specifically in the burschenschafts of the universities. These decrees censored nationalist ideas and effectively stifled liberal & nationalist movements in Germany.
English mob angry over the Corn Law.
After the Peterloo Massacre in England, the gov't passed these acts, which censored books, raised taxes on newspapers, authorized unwarranted searches, and restricted the right to public assembly.
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
By Metternich, saying that the powers can intervene in any revolutionary situations.
In Russia, when Alexander died, there was confusion over who would become Tsar: Nicholas or Constantine. When it was discovered that Constantine had given up his rights to the throne, liberals, who favored him, rebelled. Nicholas took power and put down the rebellion, and ruled conservatively.
Made by Charles X of France, who didn't like elected gov'ts. These ordinances suppressed the press, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, and excluded the middle class from voting. People were very upset by this and this led to his abdication.
Anger over Charles X of France's July Ordinances. Charles fled to England. Lafayette reestablished the National Guard and put Louis Philippe in power.
Nicholas I wanted to pass through Poland to put down the rebellion in Belgium, but the Polish wanted to dethrone Nicholas. The Poles were defeated.
The Congress of Vienna had given Belgium to the Dutch Netherlands, but Belgians didn't like that. They rebelled, proclaimed independence, and drafted a constitution. Eventually they were established as permanently neutral
By Charles X which suppressed the press, dissolved the newly freely elected chamber of deputies, restricted the ability to vote away from the middle class, and called for a new vote for the chamber. This led to his abdication.
It gave representation to the big cities that sprung up during the Industrial Revolution. It also allowed more people to vote.
Ended trade barriers and promoted economic unity. It was controlled by Prussia and allowed it to dominate economically. It excluded Austria.
English petition that called for annual elections, universal male suffrage, secret ballot, equal electorate states, abolish property qualifications and salaries for parliament
Britain: Women and children were not prohibited from working in mines.
Britain: Women/children can only work for 10 hours
War of independence from Austria, led by Louis Kossuth.
Liberals wanted a liberal government, and wanted to eliminate
Austrian control of Italy. This revolution was to unify Italy.
Overthrowing of Louis Philippe and establishing the 2nd Republic.
Revolution erupted, forcing Metternich to flee. They set up a gov't with an elected parliament.
A convention of delegates voted by people of all over Germany to form a German federacy. They agreed on a constitution for Germany without Austria led by king of Prussia. Prussian king, Frederick Wilhelm, refuses this.
Prussia proposes to lead German unification without Austria.
Bismarck makes Prussia back out of the Erfurt Union and to reestablish the German confederation under Austria to protect the weak German states from France and Austria.
Secret alliance between Count Cavour of Sardinia and Napoleon III of France against Austria.
Cavour signs secret treaty with Prussia against Austria and France.
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained
Dual monarchy under Hapsburg ruler Francis Joseph
Passed by Conservative PM Benjamin Disraeli which extended the suffrage from 1 million to 2 million eligible voters.
Napoleon III abdicates after being defeated by Prussia.
State-supported education in Britain by Prime Minister William Gladstone
An alliance by Bismarck with Austria-Hungary, to which Italy was added in 1882. This formed the Triple Alliance, which lasted until WWI. It said that if any member went to war with 2 or more powers, its allies would support it militarily.
Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy cut up Africa for imperialism. They made border lines which grouped different tribes and cultures into the same country, which was a cause of conflict.
After Bismarck’s retirement, the reinsurance treaty was too complex for his successors and it lapsed. The French, faced by the Triple Alliance, seized the opportunity to form their own alliance with Russia, and the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed.
The Kaiser’s expression of support for the South African Boers in their conflict with Britain. Was an insult to Britain.
The climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa. A French expedition to Fashoda sought to gain control of the Nile River and thereby force Britain out of Egypt. The British held firm as Britain and France were on the verge of war. It ended in a diplomatic victory for the British.
Nonmilitary agreement between France and Britain that established close relations.
The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to the establishment of limited constitutional monarchy, the State Duma of the Russian Empire, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
Men, women, and children gathered before the tsar’s palace one Sunday in Jan 1905 unarmed, peaceable, and respectful. However, the tsar was not in the city and his officials were scared. Troops shot down the demonstrators, killing several hundred. This led to waves of political strikes.
Tsar creates the Duma, a parliament.
Britain and Russia settled their differences. Britain recognized Russian influence in north Persia while Russia recognized British power in the south and east. They allied together and with France, made the Triple Entente.
France and England settle their differences from Fashoda and make a loose alliance called the Entente Cordiale. France then tried to reconcile England with Russia. Russia was willing because it was defeated by Japan and GB was also because it was uncertain of Germany. GB and Russia allied at the Anglo-Russian Convention.
Provided a guaranteed sickness benefit and some free medical attention for injured workers
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by Bosnian terrorist in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Italy and the Allies agreed that if the Allies won the war, Italy would get its irredenta. If Britain and France took over Germany's African colonies, Italy would receive more territory.
Irish uprising against the British, precipitated by the Germans. This rebellion was crushed by the British.
Arthur Balfour promised to the Zionists that the British supports a “Jewish homeland” in Palestine, even though they are supporting Arab nationalism. This was the foundation of the clash of Jewish and Arab nationalism, which still occurs in the present.
Revolution in Russia whichi dismantled the Tsarist gov't and led to the creation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The tsar was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.
On Dec. 3 1917, a peace conference opened between the Bolsheviks and Germans at Brest-Litovsk. Meanwhile, people on the Western border of the old Russia – Poles, Ukrainians, Estonians, Latvians, with German support, proclaimed their independence. The Bolsheviks, since they wouldn’t fight, had to sign a treaty with Germany to which they vehemently objected—the treaty of Brest-Litovsk of March 3 1918 in which they acknowledged the ‘independence’ or at least the loss to Russia, of Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces.
Treaty with Germany and Allies that created new nations in eastern Europe. Germany is charged with "war guilt' and reparations. Created Yugoslavia.
To promote world revolution.
Breaks up the Ottoman Empire and leads to French and British "mandates" in the Middle East.
Lenin concluded that socialization had advanced too fast. He advocated a compromise with capitalism, a strategic retreat. The New Economic Policy, or NEP, adopted in 1921, lasted until 1927. Under the NEP, while the state still owned basic productive industries, it allowed a lot of private trading for private profit.
The Weimar gov’t in the post-WWI circumstances looked to the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union concluded, after seeing the failed proletarian revolution in Germany and Hungary, that it was not the time to Sovietize Europe. So, it prepared to enter normal diplomatic relations with gov’ts. Germany and the Soviet Union, despite large ideological differences, thus signed the treaty of Rapallo in 1922.
In the following years the Soviet Union received needed manufactures from Germany and German factories and workers were kept busy by orders from the Soviets. The German army gave instruction to the Red Army. Required by the Treaty of Versailles to restrict military activities, the Germany army was actually able to maintain a high standard of training, weapons, and equipment through its work in Russia.
Granting it dominion status within the British Commonwealth.
Italy--Where the Fascists mobilized for a threatened coup and began to converge on the capital, Rome.The cabinet resigned and Mussolini was named premier.
French occupation of the German Ruhr valley because they were blocked in receiving their reparations. This caused catastrophic inflation in Germany due to the printing of money to assist the workers in this area.
In prison Hitler wrote his book, Mein Kampf, (My Struggle), a stream of personal recollection, racism, nationalism, collectivism, and political comment. This book sold widely and made Hitler a political figure of national prominence.
The U.S. reluctantly played a role in Germany's poor economic situation because it demanded the huge war debts of the Allies to be paid back. The Allies insisted they couldn’t pay these debts until they got reparations from Germany. In 1924 the Dawes Plan was instituted in Germany. By this plan, the French evacuated the Ruhr, and the reparation payments were cut down. A good deal of American private capital was invested in Germany the following years. Gradually, Germany got back on its feet.
As a further assurance against war, in 1925, the European powers signed a few treaties at Locarno, Switzerland. These marked the highest point of int’l goodwill between the two World Wars.
Germany signed a treaty with France and Belgium guaranteeing acceptance of their respective frontiers. It also signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia—not guaranteeing their frontiers but undertaking to attempt changing them only by discussion or agreement.
France signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia promising military aid if they were attacked by Germany. France thus strengthened its policy of balancing German power in the East by its own diplomatic alliances and by supporting the Little Entente, as the alliance of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Roman was called.
Britain promised military aid in the event of the violation of the French and Belgium frontiers against Germany. It did not give an equivalent to Czechoslovakia or Poland because Britain would only be threatened if Germany pushed westward.
Britain--The labor unions made a huge effort to keep the concessions they’d won in wartime. Industry was hard-pressed already, so it resisted. This situation culminated in the 1926 coal miners’ strike. This strike was supported by other British unions, and about 3 million organized workers in Britain left their jobs as a token of sympathy and solidarity.
An imperial conference in 1926 defined “dominion status,” which said that dominions(Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa) legally became equal with each other and Great Britain. No act passed by the British Parliament would apply to a dominion unless the dominion consents.
Britain-- After coal miners' strike, declared all general or sympathy strikes illegal
In 1928 Stalin and the party launched the First Five-Year Plan, aimed at rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture.
leads to Great Depression.
After a decade of political disturbance, a mild revolution drove out Alfonso XIII of the Bourbon family, and created a democratic Spanish Republic.
By entirely legal means, Hitler became chancellor of the German Republic. Other positions were filled by the Nationalists, who were to share power with the Nazis.
Hitler removes Germany out of the League and the Disarmament Conference then taking place.
They were fearful of Germany because Hitler said he wanted to obliterate Bolshevism. The Soviet Union then looked for a collective international front against aggression by joining the League.
Hitler successfully wooed Poland, long France’s ally, and the two countries signed a nonaggression treaty.
Germany--These laws deprived Jews of all citizenship rights and forbade inter-marriage or even sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews.
The Soviets became interested in collective int’l action against aggression from Hitler. They offered assistance in fighting fascist aggressors, signing mutual assistance pacts with France and Czechoslovakia.
They were embarrassed of the defeat of Italian forces in Ethiopia in 1896 which blocked Italy’s ambitions in northeast Africa so they went in again.
An agreement signed by Japan with Germany but soon also ratified by Italy that appeared to be a alliance against Communism but was actually a diplomatic alliance.
Where Mussolini and Hitler came to an understanding and became allies.
For 3 years the republican or loyalist forces held their ground before finally succumbing to the insurgents led by Francisco Franco, who established an authoritarian, fascist-type rule.
After Hitler annexed Austria, the western part of Czechoslovakia was protruding into the German Reich. Hitler, through the Munich agreements, were able to have the French (who repudiated its treaty with Czechoslovakia) and British put extreme pressure on the Czechs to yield the Sudeten area. However, that area contained all the Czech fortifications against German attack, so it left Czechoslovakia defenseless.
On the “night of broken glass,” the anti-Semitism of Nazi Germany turned to fierce violence. When a 17 year old Polish-Jewish student, distraught by the treatment of his parents, killed a German diplomatic official, Nazi storm troopers smashed Jewish shops, business, and synagogues in a savage storm. They beat up thousands of Jews and rounded up 30,000 to be sent to concentration camps.
Hitler marched into Bohemia-Moravia, the truly Czech part of Czechoslovakia and transformed it into a German protectorate. Exploiting Slovak nationalism, he declared Slovakia independent. Czechoslovakia now disappeared from the map.
The Soviet Union openly signed a treaty of nonaggression and friendship with Nazi Germany. In a secret provision, it agreed that in any future territorial rearrangement, the Soviet Union and Germany would divide Poland among them, and that the Soviet Union would have a greater influence in the Baltic States. In return the Soviets pledged to stay out of any war between Germany and Poland or the Western democracies.
The Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations after their invasion of Finland—the only power to be expelled ever.
Japan cemented their alliance with Germany and Italy in a new three-power pact.
By June 22 France wanted peace and an armistice was signed. Hitler was ecstatic. q. Under the armistice, France was occupied in its northern 2/3rds by Germany. The Third Republic now had its capital at Vichy.
The Germans were alarmed by Soviet intentions in E. Europe. They wanted E. Europe for themselves as a counterpart to industrial Germany. Hitler moved to bring the Balkans back under German control. He blackmailed Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary into joining the Axis. They became lesser partners. Hitler thus barred Soviet expansion in the Balkans and made the Balkan States part of the Nazi new order.
The Allies resolved to accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of the Axis.
In a spectacular campaign in, the British, Canadians, and Americans conquered Sicily. Mussolini fell from power and the Fascist regime came to an end. A new gov't was established under Marshal Badoglio.
The Badoglio gov’t declared war on Germany and Italy was recognized by the Allies as a “cobelligerent.”
The U.S. held an int’l conference of 44 nations at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. They pledged to reduce trade barriers and work towards stable currencies. They created the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which became the foundation of postwar global commerce.
After WWII, like after WWI, an int’l organization was set up to prevent future war. A conference of all anti-Axis powers, held at San Francisco, founded the United Nations and its charter. The General Assembly was where all member states, no matter what size, would have an equal vote. The Security Council, whose main responsibility was to preserve peace, consisted of the 5 Great Powers, who were to be permanent members, and 10 rotating members chosen for 2-year terms.
The Allies reached agreements on Poland and E. Europe, the future of Germany, the war in Asia, and the United Nations. They made Stalin promise the liberated states will have democratic provisional gov’ts in The Declaration on Liberated Europe. This gave a false sense of agreement; there were to be no free elections in Soviet E. Europe. Germany was to be disarmed and divided into four occupation zones under the administration of the Three Powers and France.
Mussolini was killed as he was trying to flee Italy.
A new president, Harry S Truman, represented the United States. Churchill was replaced by a new Prime minister, Clement Attlee after the Labour party’s victory. Stalin still represented the Soviet Union. The Polish border was pushed west into German territory. German East Prussia was divided between the Soviet Union in the north and Poland in the south.
A reestablishment of the abandoned Comintern.
American George C. Marshall invited the Europeans to cooperate on a broad program of reconstruction, for which the U.S. would provide financial support. The plan was not political. It was offered to the USSR but they refused.
The results of this plan exceeded expectations by far. W. Europe improved transportation, infrastructure, and productive capacity. They reduced trade barriers. The plan accelerated recovery, smoothed the process, and encouraged economic cooperation between the European countries. It helped American interests by restoring a world market, but enlarged the divide between the U.S. and Soviets.
This was adopted largely because of the persuasive powers of the American delegate Eleanor Roosevelt, but had no means of implementing it.
The Atlantic Pact was a military alliance of unlimited duration and a broad scope. Attack against one was an attack against all. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) emerged with a network of military arrangements and a chain of command led by General Eisenhower. Created by U.S. and other countries.
Created in the western-occupied area of Germany.
With its capital in the Rhineland city of Bonn
Its capital was in Berlin.
Planned by French administrator Jean Monnet which designed a plan under which 6 W. European countries (France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and Benelux) placed their coal and steel industries under a supreme authority. They agreed to eliminate taxes on coal and steel and put production under a common High Authority with decision-making powers.
Monnet was the first president of this.
The Soviet Union saw the growing unity of W. Europe and drew its 6 satellite states closer. It coordinated the existing network of military alliances in the Warsaw Pact.
Crushed by the Soviets.
The 6 nations of the European Coal and Steel Community (France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux) signed this, creating a large free-trade area/customs union, called the European Economic Community, or Common Market. The goal was to move towards full economic and even political integration.
With Charles de Gaulle as president.
Formed by oil-exporting countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America formed the to reduce the monopoly of foreign companies and to assume more power over production and prices. In OPEC the Arab states of the Middle East were the most assertive.
Soviets constructed this wall with barbed wire and troops to keep West Germans from leaving. Hundreds of East Germans who tried to cross it were killed.
Proclaimed the Soviet right to intervene in any Communist country to protect socialism against a restoration of a capitalist regime.
When Czechoslovakia’s one-party state was threatened, Brezhnev ruthlessly crushed the the rebellion.
Nixon and the Soviets reaffirmed the goal of “peaceful coexistence” and signed the SALT (The Strategic Arms Limitation) I treaty, in which each nation agreed to make it possible to work toward equality in weapons. They also agreed to keep weapons at a fixed number for 5 years. The treaty didn’t halt the arms race, but it reduced fears on both sides of a preemptive strike.
The recession was severe, but not as so as the Great Depression. However, the inflation was very intense.
3 decades after WWII, 35 nations (including nations of NATO and Warsaw Pact) met at Helsinki over 2 years in a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. They pledged to work for peace and economic cooperation and the protection of human rights.
p. The Helsinki accords ratified the European territorial boundaries after WWII and set up committees for surveillance of human rights in countries that signed the agreements.
q. The USSR considered the commitment to human rights a small price to pay in return for economic and other benefits of détente. But it failed to see how much the Helsinki accords would encourage people to defy oppression.
r. The Helsinki conference was the high point of the Cold War détente. After, in 1979, Soviet-Western relations turned downward.
Nuclear accident releases dangerous radioactivity in Ukraine.
Gorbachev and Reagan made a remarkable breakthrough by consenting to remove the missiles each had installed in Europe. The Soviets were willing to destroy many more missiles than the U.S. They also talked about reducing long-range weapons.
Many more went to W. Germany.
The 4 Allied powers, including the U.S.S.R, gave approval. The 2 states merged their economies. The 2 states became an enlarged Federal Republic of Germany with its capital at Berlin. It was a reunited democracy.
The union treaty was the last straw for the hard-liners, military, and secret police. The day before the treaty was to be signed, 8 hard-liners tried to seize power. Gorbachev condemned them.
In Moscow, Yeltsin gained stature when he rallied the Russian legislature in defense of Gorbachev. The coup failed in a few days.
A bloodless revolution had brought the collapse of communism in the USSR, undoing the Russian Revolution of 1917 and ending Communist party rule. The USSR dissolved into its component republics and Russia reemerged.
Establishes the European Union
Married Philip II of Spain, had no children. She tried to re-Catholicize England, but made Catholicism even more unpopular. She married Philip of Spain, but the English did not like Philip, Spain, or its Catholicism. She publically executed heretics.
Under Elizabeth, England became Protestant. She did not marry or have an heir.
First Stuart king
Second Stuart king, son of James I. Believed in the absolute monarchy, didn't want to rule with Parliament. Executed by Oliver Cromwell.
The King of France and reigned for 72 years. No one else has held so powerful of a position for so long. Louis XIV was more than a figurehead. He was the actual and working head of the French government.
Oliver Cromwell of England, Lord Protector
Son of Charles I.
Brother of Charles II.
Started the Revolution of 1688. William was grandson of Charles I, Mary was daughter of James II.
Restoration of the Bourbon monarchy after the defeat of Napoleon.
July Ordinances, July revolution of France.
Not a Bourbon. He was the Duke of Orleans put on the throne by Lafayette.
A distinguished era of material progress, literary accomplishment, and political stability.
Yeltsin became president of the Russian Republic in an overwhelming victory over the Communists. He was the first president in Russian history to be elected by popular vote.