European History

Phases

Italian Renaissance

1400 - 1500

Protestant Reformation

1500 - 1600

Age of Wars of Religion

1560 - 1648

British Industrial Revolution

1770 - 1850

The French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The Terror

1793 - 1794

The Directory

1795 - 1799

The Consulate

1799 - 1804

After the French Revolution, Napoleon as First Consul.

Wars

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Fought between England and France, took place in France. France was divided, with some places belonging to England, like Aquitaine. French forces started winning under Joan of Arc, who was later burned at the stake by the English in 1431 at age 19 for being accused of heresy and witchcraft. England won.

War of the Roses

1450 - 1485

Civil war in England for which house is to be the ruling house. Fought between the House of Lancaster (red rose) and the House of York (white rose). Tudor house ended up taking the throne.

Sack of Rome

1494

The French army crossed the Alps, and caught Italy in between tension between France and Spain. Spanish/German mercenaries sacked Rome. After this, the Italian Renaissance faded away, but their culture still spread around the rest of Europe.

Religious & Civil wars in France

1562 - 1598

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Catherine de' Medici feared the growing influence of Coligny over the king and decided to kill the Huguenots in Paris at the marriage of Henry of Navarre. This was the massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day. Coligny was killed; Henry of Navarre escaped by temporarily changing his religion.

War of the Three Henrys

1587 - 1589

The eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion. The war was fought between the royalists, led by Henry III of France; the Huguenots, led by Henry of Navarre; and the Catholic League, led by Henry Duke of Guise.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

France was trapped between two Habsburgs: HRE and Spain. Richelieu wanted to make France a dominant power, so they tried to break up the HRE without France becoming directly involved. This war decentralized the HRE, limited the Habsburgs, and led to the rise of the Bourbon dynasty. All German states could have religious sovereignty.

Bohemian

1618 - 1625

Danish

1625 - 1629

Swedish

1630 - 1635

Swedish-French

1635 - 1648

English Civil Wars

1642 - 1648

Fought between Charles I and Parliament over who had more power.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

A French rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy; caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism

Dutch v. England

1652 - 1674

English Revolution of 1688

1688

"Glorious Revolution" - resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of William of Orange and Mary to the English throne. It was achieved without war. Gave more power to Parliament.

War of the League of Augsburg

1688 - 1697

League of Augsburg against Louis XIV in his expansionist wars. Ended by the Peace of Ryswick.

Battle of the Boyne

1690

Ireland was subjected in the Battle of the Boyne, where James II was supported by a French army but lost.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Balance of Power limits French expansion. Fight for the Spanish throne after declining Habsburgs. Louis XIV's last war. This upsetted the balance of power, so Europe opposed it. Louis is defeated. Ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Between Maria Theresa of Austria and Frederick of Prussia. Ended by Treaty of Aix La-Chappel, which said that Frederick would get to keep Silesia, but Maria Theresa got everything else.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

1st Coalition Wars

1793 - 1797

Fought by European powers (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) against Napoleon and the French Republic.

Irish Rebellion

1798

United Irish societies rose to drive out the English and establish an independent republic. They were defeated.

2nd Coalition Wars

1798 - 1801

3rd Coalition Wars

1805 - 1807

Austria, Russia, Britain

Battle at Trafalgar

october 21 1805

The British fleet, under Lord Nelson, annihilated the combined fleets of France and Spain in their attempt to invade Britain.

Battle of Austerlitz

dec 2 1805

Napoleon defeats the Russian and Austrian armies. Peace was made with Austria with the Treaty of Pressburg.

Jena & Auerstadt

Oct 1806

As Napoleon’s desire to control Germany was clear after Austerlitz, Prussia went to war with France unaided and alone. The French destroyed them at Jena and Auerstadt.

Peninsular War

1808 - 1814

To control all of Europe’s trade for the Continental System, Napoleon just needed Spain. He made his brother Joseph king of Spain in 1808. The Spanish saw Napoleon as a godless villain and used guerrilla. The British sent the Duke of Wellington to support the Spanish guerrillas which started the Peninsular War.

Austrian War of Liberation

April 1809 - October 1809

Liberation from under Napoleon's rule.

Napoleon enters Russia

June 1812

Battle of Borodino

Sept. 7 1812

Napoleon's Grand Army vs. Russia. The Russians outnumbered the Grand Army. Napoleon won the battle, but lost many men. Russia left in okay condition.

Battle of Leipzig

16 October 1813

The allies drove Napoleon back and defeated him immediately after he returned from being defeated in Russia.

Battle of Waterloo

18 June 1815

Napoleon is defeated here in Belgium by the Duke of Wellington after he escapes from his exile and raises an army.

Greek War of Independence

1821 - 1832

Leaders include Alexander Ypsilanti, with assistance from Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and several other European powers against the Ottoman Empire.

Crimean War

October 1853 - February 1856

Fought between Russia and the West over gaining control over the areas of the declining Ottoman Empire. Sardinia helps GB, France, and Austria in fighting Russia so that they might help with Italian unification. Prussia remains neutral to avoid a two-front war and to stay on Russia's good side.

Austro-Sardinian War

jan 1 1859 - dec 31 1859

Austria wages war against Sardinia. France assists Piedmont as per Plombieres. At first Sardinia is winning, but then France backs out because the papal states got involved and France didn't want to get on Pope's bad side. Austria loses. Sardinia gets Lombardy. France gets Nice & Savoy, but Austria keeps Venetia.

German-Danish War

1863 - 1864

War fought by Prussia against Denmark because Denmark wanted the German state of Schleswig. Prussia, allying with Austria, won.

Austro-Prussian War

June 15, 1866 - Aug 23, 1866

The Prussians turned against Austria, and wanted Holstein. Sardinia helps the Prussians against Austria. The Prussians won, got Holstein and more land. Sardinia gets Venetia.

In the making peace, Prussia makes sure to be kind to Austria so as to not make an enemy.

Franco-Prussian War

19 July 1870 - 10 May 1871

Bismarck offends France by trying to put a Prussian on the throne of Spain. (Hohenzollern v. Bourbon). Bismarck writes the Ems Dispatch, provoking France to do something stupid, which they do by declaring war. French army has to leave Rome to fight Prussia. France lost, and Bismarck pronounced a German empire. Italy recaptures Rome is unified.

France is defeated within weeks and is left extremely embarrassed. Plus, by the Treaty of Frankfurt, they have to pay a huge war indemnity and German troops won't leave until they pay it. They also have to give up Alsace and Lorraine and recognize the 2nd Reich: a unified Germany. Outlines World War I.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Russia was badly defeated and embarassed.

Balkan Wars

1912 - 1913

Contributed to Serbian and Russian hostility towards Austria.

World War I

28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918

Austria declares war on Serbia

july 28, 1914

Battle of the Marne

sept 5, 1914

The French heroically fought back the Germans, keeping them out of Paris.

Italy switches sides

1915

They are no longer a part of the Central Powers (Austria and Germany).

Civil War and Red Terror

1918 - 1922

Bolsheviks consolidate power and suppress all opponents.

Japan invades China

july 7 1937

World War II

1939 - 1945

Hitler invades Poland

sept 1 1939

Soviet-Finnish War

1940

Finland was defeated but escaped Communist rule.

Hitler occupies Paris and Verdun

June 1940

Hitler Invades USSR

June 22 1941

to crush the Soviets and to gain the wheat harvests of the Ukraine and the oil fields of the Caucasus, Hitler invaded the U.S.S.R. Stalin was caught completely by surprise and initially seemed incapable of mounting a defense.

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

Dec 7 1941

Without warning, the Japanese launched a heavy air raid on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The American fleet was crippled. The U.S. and G.B. declared war on Japan on Dec 8. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on U.S., as did the Axis puppet states. Thus the war became a global struggle.

Battle of Stalingrad

Aug 1942

Massive German forces assaulted Stalingrad. Stalin ordered that he city be held at all costs. Hitler was just as firm in ordering that the city be taken. After weeks of battle, the Red Army suddenly counterattacked. They trapped the Germany army, killed a huge number, and the German army surrendered. After Stalingrad, the Soviet Union was on the offensive for the remainder of the war. Stalingrad became a turning point in the history of the war.

D-Day

june 6 1944

GB and US invade Europe

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Sept 1945

U.S. dropped 2 atomic bombs on Japan and the Soviet union declares war on Japan

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

Confrontation between U.S. and U.S.S.R.

Arab-Israeli war

Oct 1973

The oil issue turned increasingly political during this war, when the Arab states embargoed the shipment of oil to the states supporting Israel. The OPEC cartel cut back production and quadrupled oil prices. The oil shortage and price escalation, after int’l monetary difficulties and devaluations of the dollar undermined currencies, accelerated inflation, and seriously interrupted the spectacular growth of W. European economies.

Political

Boniface VIII starts selling indulgences

1300

If a person truly repented, they could buy an indulgence and be spared purgatory.

Unam Sanctam

1302

Pope Boniface VIII says that there is no salvation outside of the Roman church and every human is subject to its rule.

Pope Boniface VIII Dies

1303

Victory for Philip IV of France, who goes on to elect a new pope at Avignon. This starts the Babylonian Captivity of the church, causing it to lose much of its prestige. Rome goes on to elect another pope as well.

Conciliar Movement

1409

A church council met at Pisa, demanding that both popes of the schism step down. They held an election for a new pope, but neither of the previous two stepped down, so now there were three.

Council meets at Constance

1414

The council aimed to end the schism, end heresy, and to reform the church. There were little successes in reformation. To discourage heresy, Hus was burned at the stake. The 3 popes were persuaded to resign, and Martin V was elected.

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

1438

The Gallican (French) Church said councils have supremacy over popes, declared independence from the Holy See, ended annate payment to Rome, and forbade papal intervention in the appointment of prelates (bishops).

Aragon and Castille unite

1492

This forms modern Spain. The Jews and Moors were expelled.

Reconquista Ends

1492

Muslims are removed from the Iberian Peninsula.

Concordat of Bologna

1516

Pope gave the French king (Francis I) power of the Gallican Church.

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges is overturned

1516

King Francis I of France agreed with Pope Leo X in the Concordat of Bologna which rescinded (overturned) the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438. Therefore, the pope still received annates but the king appointed the French bishops and abbots. The fact that the kings of France could control their nation’s clergy was a reason that later, they never tried to turn Protestant.

Luther posts the 95 theses

1517

Rise of Urlich Zwingli in Switzerland

1519

Protestantism.

Henry VIII writes "In defense of the Seven Sacraments"

1519

Luther is Excommunicated

1521

By the Edict of Worms.

Peasants' Rebellion

1524

A rebellion stirred by Luther saying each individual could understand what is right and wrong, and that the Christian man was the freest. Luther was very much against the rebellion, urging the princes to repress them completely because the princes gave him protection.

Act of Supremacy

1534

Declaring the King of England the ruler of the church in England.

Calvin Publishes "On the Institutes"

1536

"On the Institutes of the Christian Faith", which explained Calvinism.

Council of Trent

1545

The conciliar issue was raised again. A group of bishops believed the bishops of the Catholic Church, when assembled, had an authority superior to that of the pope. The popes managed to resist the idea of limiting papal power. No act of the council can be valid without acceptance by the Holy See.
The Council of Trent thus preserved the unity of the papacy.
The Council wished to state the Catholic doctrine and to reform abuses. They did not wish to reconcile with the Protestants because the movement had already gone too far.
It declared justification to be by both works and faith, the seven sacraments, the state of the priesthood being above the laity, confession and absolution, transubstantiation, the validity of church services (not just the Bible), and the Bible could only be in Latin. The right of individuals to interpret the Bible was abolished, celibacy of the clergy was maintained, and monasticism upheld, the existence of purgatory affirmed, and the veneration of saints. It acted against the abuse of indulgences but upheld the principle. The abuse of pluralism, or one man holding numerous church offices at the same time, was checked.

League of Schmalkald

1546

Defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire. Although originally started for religious motives soon after the start of the Protestant Reformation, its members eventually intended for the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Gave German princes the right to choose the religion of their area. Had to choose between Protestantism and Catholicism.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Issued by King Henry IV of France; grants religious rights to French Protestants.

Twelve Years' Truce

1609 - 1621

Between the Spanish and the Dutch, in which the Netherlands was partitioned. There were 7 provinces north of the line, henceforth known as the Dutch. The 10 provinces south of the line were known as the Spanish Netherlands.

The Petition of Rights

1628

English Parliament forced Charles I to sign it. Said:
1. Kings cannot raise taxes with consenting parliament.
2. No imprisonment without a cause
3. No soldiers may be quartered upon the citizenry,
4. Martial law may not be used in time of peace.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Ended the Wars of Religion in Europe.

Execution of Charles I

1649

Navigation Act of 1651

1651

Barred Dutch ships from carrying goods to England for other countries, attacking Dutch maritime supremacy.

Treaty of Dover

1670

Charles II agreed to join Louis in his impending war against the Dutch; and Louis promised to pay him during the war and hoped Charles would rejoin Catholic Church.

Test Act of 1673

1673

Required all officeholders to take communion in the Church of England and made it impossible for Catholics to serve in the gov’t or navy.

Treaty of Nimwegen

1678

Ended Louis XIV's expansionist wars.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes

1685

Persecution of French Protestants

English Bill of Rights

1689

No law could be ignored by the king (as the Test Act had been), no army or taxes could be initiated without Parliamentary consent, and no one could be arrested without legal process. William III accepted this.

Toleration Act

1689

Allowed English Protestant Dissenters to practice their religion but still excluded them from politics.

Est Bank of England

1694

To manage funds for wars with William III against France.

Act of Settlement

1701

No Catholic could be king of England, but excluding the descendants of James II, who were later called Pretenders

Creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain

1701

Merging of Scotland and England's political systems.

Pragmatic Sanction of 1713

1713

Issued by Charles VI, allowed Maria Theresa to succeed him.

First Partitioning of Poland

1772

Regulating Act

1773

Regulated the British subjects in India, whom the Indian gov’t wasn’t allowed to control. So, the company was left with trade but its political activities were brought under parliamentary control.

Assembly of Notables

1787

Called together by Louis XVI's financial manager, Calonne, to accept his plan to have, instead of the taille (land tax), a general tax would fall on all landowners without exemption, he would end all internal tariffs, and confiscate of some church property. He also wanted to give all landowners representation through establishing provincial assemblies.

Louis XVI calls the Estates General

May 1788

After the Parlement of Paris refuses Calonne's plan to tax the nobles, Louis XVI and his financial advisor de Brienne have to call the Estates General, which would meet in May.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20 1789

Said that they are to be the National Assembly and they wouldn't disband until they made a constitution.

Storming of the Bastille

July 14 1789

Dec'l of the Rights of Man

August 26 1789

Women's March to Versailles

Oct 4 1789

A group of women stormed to Versailles and demanded bread and for the royal family to live in Paris.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

Set up a French national church. Parish priests and bishops were to be elected, but were forbidden to acknowledge any papal authority. The clergy received income from the state.

Const. of 1791

1791

Declared France a constitutional monarchy.

Declaration of Pillnitz

August 27 1791

Said that if Leopold II, HRE, took military steps to restore order in France, then all other powers would join him. Empty threat; done mostly so Leopold could rid himself of the emigres.

Execution of Louis XVI

Jan 15 1792

By a majority of one.

Brunswick Manifesto

July 25, 1792

Said that if the king and queen of France were harmed at all, Prussia and Austria would attack. Not an empty threat this time.

Convention Abolishes Slavery

1794

In French colonies.

Robespierre Executed

July 17, 1794

Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety had antagonized all significant parties and the working-class couldn’t support him. A group in the Convention “outlawed” Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 17, 1794), and he was guillotined.

Const. of 1795

1795

Set up a constitutional republic, called the Directory.

Coup d'etat of 1797

1797

It was a turning point of the republic. The Directory asked for Bonaparte’s help, who sent a general, Augereau, to Paris. While he was there, the Directory annulled the first free elections in France in 1797 so that there wouldn't be a royalist majority in the Legislative Assembly.

Treaty of Campo Formio

Oct. 17, 1797

Signed by France with Austria, negotiating peace.

Egyptian Campaign

1798

Bonaparte decided to strike indirectly at England, by threatening India in an invasion of Egypt. In 1798, he landed in Egypt, which was part of the Ottoman Empire. This started a second war. Napoleon abandoned his troops and became First Consul.

Coup D’état of 1799

Nov 9 1799

Where Sieyes and Napoleon had soldiers drive the legislators from the chambers in order for Napoleon to seize power.

Act of Union of 1801

1801

The British, suppressing the Irish rebellion of 1798. The separate kingdom of Ireland and its parliament ceased to exist. This was incorporated in the Act of Union of 1801, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which lasted until 1922.

Treaty with Vatican

1801

Signed by Napoleon. The autonomy of the prerevolutionary Gallican church came to an end. The pope received the right to dispose French bishops. Public worship was allowed. The pope, by signing the concordat, now recognized the republic. The Vatican agreed to let go of the old tithes and church lands. All Napoleon had to do was state Catholicism as the religion of the majority of the French. He also disarmed the counterrevolution. The Revolution was no longer godless.

Treaty of Luneville

February 1801

The Russians withdrew from the war with France. Napoleon again defeated the Austrians in Italy, who signed the treaty of Lunéville, which confirmed the treaty of Campo Formio. A year later, peace was made with Britain. Dissolves the 2nd Coalition.

Napoleon is Consul for Life

1802

Napoleon has himself elected Consul for life.

Napoleon Reestablishes Slavery

1802

Treaty of Amiens

March 25 1802

Temporarily ended hostilities between France and Britain during the French Revolution. Under the treaty, Britain recognized the French Republic. With the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the 2nd Coalition.

Const. of 1804

1804

Napoleon declares France an Empire, and himself the Emperor.

Napoleon is Emperor

may 1804

Peace of Pressburg

Dec 1805

Napoleon took Venetia and gave it to Italy. Napoleon made Bavaria and Wurttemburg into kingdoms and the HRE was finally dissolved. He gathered the German states into a kind of federation, the Confederation of the Rhine, where Napoleon was the “protector”.

Berlin Decree

1806

Forbade the importation of British goods into his territory or his allies, hoping to cripple them economically. This established the continental system.

Treaty of Tilsit

July 1807

Treaty where Napoleon condemned England and promised Alexander to be Emperor of the East. The two countries allied, mainly against Britain. Alexander accepted Napoleon as Emperor of the West. Prussia was not invited to discuss this treaty.

Milan Decree

Dec 1807

Said that if any neutral ship had stopped at a British port earlier, it would be confiscated if seen at a Continental harbor.

Russia withdraws from Continental System

Dec 31 1810

Spanish Constitution of 1812

1812

Spanish Constitution as a result of the nationalism against Napoleon. It was modeled after the French constitution of 1791.

Treaty of Chaumont

March 9 1814

Signed by Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain, in which each power bound themselves for 20 years in their alliance against France.

Abdication of Napoleon

April 4 1814

By the Allies.

'First' Treaty of Paris

May 30, 1814

Signed with the Bourbons and the allies which restored France’s pre-war boundaries. They did not take vengeance nor wish to handicap the country they put their hopes on.

Congress of Vienna assembles

Sept. 1814

A gathering of all states of Europe. All important matters were decided by the 4 Great Powers. France was represented by Talleyrand. Castlereagh, Metternich, and Alexander were present. Prussia was represented by Hardenberg.

They put a border of strong powers along Eastern France. Created the German Confederation. Holy and Quadruple Alliances. Austria got Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Corn Laws

1815

Raising protective tariffs to protect English landowners.

Napoleon escapes Elba

March 1, 1815

Factory Acts

1819

Passed by the English Parliament. It forbade employment of children under nine. Limited work day of children over nine to 12 hours. Banned employment of women/children in mining.

Carlsbad Decrees

1819

Developed by Metternich, who felt threatened by the rise of German nationalism, specifically in the burschenschafts of the universities. These decrees censored nationalist ideas and effectively stifled liberal & nationalist movements in Germany.

Peterloo Massacre

16 August 1819

English mob angry over the Corn Law.

Six Acts

30 dec 1819

After the Peterloo Massacre in England, the gov't passed these acts, which censored books, raised taxes on newspapers, authorized unwarranted searches, and restricted the right to public assembly.

Greek Revolution

1820

Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

Troppau Protocol

1820

By Metternich, saying that the powers can intervene in any revolutionary situations.

Decembrist Revolt

1825

In Russia, when Alexander died, there was confusion over who would become Tsar: Nicholas or Constantine. When it was discovered that Constantine had given up his rights to the throne, liberals, who favored him, rebelled. Nicholas took power and put down the rebellion, and ruled conservatively.

July Ordinances

July 1830

Made by Charles X of France, who didn't like elected gov'ts. These ordinances suppressed the press, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, and excluded the middle class from voting. People were very upset by this and this led to his abdication.

July Revolution of France

Jul 1830

Anger over Charles X of France's July Ordinances. Charles fled to England. Lafayette reestablished the National Guard and put Louis Philippe in power.

July Revolution of Poland

Jul 1830

Nicholas I wanted to pass through Poland to put down the rebellion in Belgium, but the Polish wanted to dethrone Nicholas. The Poles were defeated.

July Revolution of Belgium

Jul 1830

The Congress of Vienna had given Belgium to the Dutch Netherlands, but Belgians didn't like that. They rebelled, proclaimed independence, and drafted a constitution. Eventually they were established as permanently neutral

July Ordinances

26 july 1830

By Charles X which suppressed the press, dissolved the newly freely elected chamber of deputies, restricted the ability to vote away from the middle class, and called for a new vote for the chamber. This led to his abdication.

Formation of Young Italy

1831

English Reform Bill

1832

It gave representation to the big cities that sprung up during the Industrial Revolution. It also allowed more people to vote.

Creation of the Zollverein

1834

Ended trade barriers and promoted economic unity. It was controlled by Prussia and allowed it to dominate economically. It excluded Austria.

Charter of 1838

1838

English petition that called for annual elections, universal male suffrage, secret ballot, equal electorate states, abolish property qualifications and salaries for parliament

Mines Act

1842

Britain: Women and children were not prohibited from working in mines.

Ten Hour Act

1847

Britain: Women/children can only work for 10 hours

Hungary Revolution of 1848

1848

War of independence from Austria, led by Louis Kossuth.

Italian Revolution of 1848

1848

Liberals wanted a liberal government, and wanted to eliminate
Austrian control of Italy. This revolution was to unify Italy.

French February Days

feb 1848

Overthrowing of Louis Philippe and establishing the 2nd Republic.

Austrian March Days

March 1848

Revolution erupted, forcing Metternich to flee. They set up a gov't with an elected parliament.

Frankfort Assembly

may 1848

A convention of delegates voted by people of all over Germany to form a German federacy. They agreed on a constitution for Germany without Austria led by king of Prussia. Prussian king, Frederick Wilhelm, refuses this.

Erfurt Union

1849

Prussia proposes to lead German unification without Austria.

Treaty of Olmutz

1850

Bismarck makes Prussia back out of the Erfurt Union and to reestablish the German confederation under Austria to protect the weak German states from France and Austria.

Treaty of Plombieres

1858

Secret alliance between Count Cavour of Sardinia and Napoleon III of France against Austria.

Cavour Signs Secret Treaty with Prussia

1859

Cavour signs secret treaty with Prussia against Austria and France.

Emancipation of Serfs in Russia

1861

Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained

Napoleon III sends troops to Rome

1866

Creation of Austria-Hungary

1867

Dual monarchy under Hapsburg ruler Francis Joseph

Second Reform Bill

1867

Passed by Conservative PM Benjamin Disraeli which extended the suffrage from 1 million to 2 million eligible voters.

Third French Republic

1870

Napoleon III abdicates after being defeated by Prussia.

Forster Education Act

1870

State-supported education in Britain by Prime Minister William Gladstone

Triple Alliance

1879

An alliance by Bismarck with Austria-Hungary, to which Italy was added in 1882. This formed the Triple Alliance, which lasted until WWI. It said that if any member went to war with 2 or more powers, its allies would support it militarily.

Berlin Conference

1884

Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy cut up Africa for imperialism. They made border lines which grouped different tribes and cultures into the same country, which was a cause of conflict.

Bismarck Retires

1890

Franco-Russian Alliance

1894

After Bismarck’s retirement, the reinsurance treaty was too complex for his successors and it lapsed. The French, faced by the Triple Alliance, seized the opportunity to form their own alliance with Russia, and the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed.

Kruger Telegram

1896

The Kaiser’s expression of support for the South African Boers in their conflict with Britain. Was an insult to Britain.

Fashoda Incident

1898

The climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa. A French expedition to Fashoda sought to gain control of the Nile River and thereby force Britain out of Egypt. The British held firm as Britain and France were on the verge of war. It ended in a diplomatic victory for the British.

Entente Cordial

1904

Nonmilitary agreement between France and Britain that established close relations.

Revolution of 1905

1905

The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to the establishment of limited constitutional monarchy, the State Duma of the Russian Empire, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.

Bloody Sunday

Jan 1905

Men, women, and children gathered before the tsar’s palace one Sunday in Jan 1905 unarmed, peaceable, and respectful. However, the tsar was not in the city and his officials were scared. Troops shot down the demonstrators, killing several hundred. This led to waves of political strikes.

October Manifesto

oct 1905

Tsar creates the Duma, a parliament.

Anglo-Russian Convention

1907

Britain and Russia settled their differences. Britain recognized Russian influence in north Persia while Russia recognized British power in the south and east. They allied together and with France, made the Triple Entente.

Triple Entente

1907

France and England settle their differences from Fashoda and make a loose alliance called the Entente Cordiale. France then tried to reconcile England with Russia. Russia was willing because it was defeated by Japan and GB was also because it was uncertain of Germany. GB and Russia allied at the Anglo-Russian Convention.

National Health Insurance Act

1911

Provided a guaranteed sickness benefit and some free medical attention for injured workers

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

June 1914

Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by Bosnian terrorist in Sarajevo, Bosnia.

Secret Treaty of London

May 1915

Italy and the Allies agreed that if the Allies won the war, Italy would get its irredenta. If Britain and France took over Germany's African colonies, Italy would receive more territory.

Easter Rebellion of 1916

april 1916

Irish uprising against the British, precipitated by the Germans. This rebellion was crushed by the British.

Balfour Declaration

1917

Arthur Balfour promised to the Zionists that the British supports a “Jewish homeland” in Palestine, even though they are supporting Arab nationalism. This was the foundation of the clash of Jewish and Arab nationalism, which still occurs in the present.

Revolution of 1917

1917

Revolution in Russia whichi dismantled the Tsarist gov't and led to the creation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The tsar was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.

U.S. Declares war on Germany

April 1917

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3 1918

On Dec. 3 1917, a peace conference opened between the Bolsheviks and Germans at Brest-Litovsk. Meanwhile, people on the Western border of the old Russia – Poles, Ukrainians, Estonians, Latvians, with German support, proclaimed their independence. The Bolsheviks, since they wouldn’t fight, had to sign a treaty with Germany to which they vehemently objected—the treaty of Brest-Litovsk of March 3 1918 in which they acknowledged the ‘independence’ or at least the loss to Russia, of Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces.

Collapse of Ger. and Aust.-Hungr. Empires

Nov 1918

Armistice

Nov 1918

Treaty of Versailles

march 1919

Treaty with Germany and Allies that created new nations in eastern Europe. Germany is charged with "war guilt' and reparations. Created Yugoslavia.

Creation of Communist International

march 1919

To promote world revolution.

Weimar Republic is created

july 1919

German republic.

Treaty of Sevres

1920

Breaks up the Ottoman Empire and leads to French and British "mandates" in the Middle East.

Creation of League of Nations

1920

New Economic Policy

1921

Lenin concluded that socialization had advanced too fast. He advocated a compromise with capitalism, a strategic retreat. The New Economic Policy, or NEP, adopted in 1921, lasted until 1927. Under the NEP, while the state still owned basic productive industries, it allowed a lot of private trading for private profit.

Treaty of Rapallo

1922

The Weimar gov’t in the post-WWI circumstances looked to the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union concluded, after seeing the failed proletarian revolution in Germany and Hungary, that it was not the time to Sovietize Europe. So, it prepared to enter normal diplomatic relations with gov’ts. Germany and the Soviet Union, despite large ideological differences, thus signed the treaty of Rapallo in 1922.

In the following years the Soviet Union received needed manufactures from Germany and German factories and workers were kept busy by orders from the Soviets. The German army gave instruction to the Red Army. Required by the Treaty of Versailles to restrict military activities, the Germany army was actually able to maintain a high standard of training, weapons, and equipment through its work in Russia.

Britain recognized an Irish Free State

1922

Granting it dominion status within the British Commonwealth.

March on Rome

Oct. 1922

Italy--Where the Fascists mobilized for a threatened coup and began to converge on the capital, Rome.The cabinet resigned and Mussolini was named premier.

Ruhr Incident

1923

French occupation of the German Ruhr valley because they were blocked in receiving their reparations. This caused catastrophic inflation in Germany due to the printing of money to assist the workers in this area.

Hitler writes "Mein Kampf"

1923

In prison Hitler wrote his book, Mein Kampf, (My Struggle), a stream of personal recollection, racism, nationalism, collectivism, and political comment. This book sold widely and made Hitler a political figure of national prominence.

Lenin Dies

1924

Dawes Plan

1924

The U.S. reluctantly played a role in Germany's poor economic situation because it demanded the huge war debts of the Allies to be paid back. The Allies insisted they couldn’t pay these debts until they got reparations from Germany. In 1924 the Dawes Plan was instituted in Germany. By this plan, the French evacuated the Ruhr, and the reparation payments were cut down. A good deal of American private capital was invested in Germany the following years. Gradually, Germany got back on its feet.

Treaties of Locarno

1925

As a further assurance against war, in 1925, the European powers signed a few treaties at Locarno, Switzerland. These marked the highest point of int’l goodwill between the two World Wars.

Germany signed a treaty with France and Belgium guaranteeing acceptance of their respective frontiers. It also signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia—not guaranteeing their frontiers but undertaking to attempt changing them only by discussion or agreement.

France signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia promising military aid if they were attacked by Germany. France thus strengthened its policy of balancing German power in the East by its own diplomatic alliances and by supporting the Little Entente, as the alliance of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Roman was called.

Britain promised military aid in the event of the violation of the French and Belgium frontiers against Germany. It did not give an equivalent to Czechoslovakia or Poland because Britain would only be threatened if Germany pushed westward.

Coal Miners' Strike

1926

Britain--The labor unions made a huge effort to keep the concessions they’d won in wartime. Industry was hard-pressed already, so it resisted. This situation culminated in the 1926 coal miners’ strike. This strike was supported by other British unions, and about 3 million organized workers in Britain left their jobs as a token of sympathy and solidarity.

Dominion status defined

1926

An imperial conference in 1926 defined “dominion status,” which said that dominions(Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa) legally became equal with each other and Great Britain. No act passed by the British Parliament would apply to a dominion unless the dominion consents.

Trades Disputes Act

1927

Britain-- After coal miners' strike, declared all general or sympathy strikes illegal

First Five-Year Plan Launched

1928

In 1928 Stalin and the party launched the First Five-Year Plan, aimed at rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture.

Lateran Pact

1929

NY stock market crash

october 1929

leads to Great Depression.

Creation of Spanish Republic

1931

After a decade of political disturbance, a mild revolution drove out Alfonso XIII of the Bourbon family, and created a democratic Spanish Republic.

Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

Jan 30, 1933

By entirely legal means, Hitler became chancellor of the German Republic. Other positions were filled by the Nationalists, who were to share power with the Nazis.

Germany leaves League of Nations

Feb 1933

Hitler removes Germany out of the League and the Disarmament Conference then taking place.

Soviet Union joins League of Nations

1934

They were fearful of Germany because Hitler said he wanted to obliterate Bolshevism. The Soviet Union then looked for a collective international front against aggression by joining the League.

Poland signs treaty with Germany

1934

Hitler successfully wooed Poland, long France’s ally, and the two countries signed a nonaggression treaty.

The Nuremburg Laws

1935

Germany--These laws deprived Jews of all citizenship rights and forbade inter-marriage or even sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews.

Soviet Union signs pacts with France and Czechoslovakia

1935

The Soviets became interested in collective int’l action against aggression from Hitler. They offered assistance in fighting fascist aggressors, signing mutual assistance pacts with France and Czechoslovakia.

Italy conquers Ethiopia

1936

They were embarrassed of the defeat of Italian forces in Ethiopia in 1896 which blocked Italy’s ambitions in northeast Africa so they went in again.

Anti-Comintern Pact

1936

An agreement signed by Japan with Germany but soon also ratified by Italy that appeared to be a alliance against Communism but was actually a diplomatic alliance.

Rome-Berlin Axis

1936

Where Mussolini and Hitler came to an understanding and became allies.

Franco rules Spain

March 1936

For 3 years the republican or loyalist forces held their ground before finally succumbing to the insurgents led by Francisco Franco, who established an authoritarian, fascist-type rule.

Union of Germany and Austria

March 1938

The "Anschluss".

Munich Conference

sept 1938

After Hitler annexed Austria, the western part of Czechoslovakia was protruding into the German Reich. Hitler, through the Munich agreements, were able to have the French (who repudiated its treaty with Czechoslovakia) and British put extreme pressure on the Czechs to yield the Sudeten area. However, that area contained all the Czech fortifications against German attack, so it left Czechoslovakia defenseless.

Kristallnacht

Nov. 9 1938

On the “night of broken glass,” the anti-Semitism of Nazi Germany turned to fierce violence. When a 17 year old Polish-Jewish student, distraught by the treatment of his parents, killed a German diplomatic official, Nazi storm troopers smashed Jewish shops, business, and synagogues in a savage storm. They beat up thousands of Jews and rounded up 30,000 to be sent to concentration camps.

Hitler absorbs Czechoslovakia

March 1939

Hitler marched into Bohemia-Moravia, the truly Czech part of Czechoslovakia and transformed it into a German protectorate. Exploiting Slovak nationalism, he declared Slovakia independent. Czechoslovakia now disappeared from the map.

Mussolini takes over Albania

April 1939

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Aug. 23 1939

The Soviet Union openly signed a treaty of nonaggression and friendship with Nazi Germany. In a secret provision, it agreed that in any future territorial rearrangement, the Soviet Union and Germany would divide Poland among them, and that the Soviet Union would have a greater influence in the Baltic States. In return the Soviets pledged to stay out of any war between Germany and Poland or the Western democracies.

Soviet Union expelled from League

Nov 1939

The Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations after their invasion of Finland—the only power to be expelled ever.

3 Power Pact

1940

Japan cemented their alliance with Germany and Italy in a new three-power pact.

France signs armistice

June 22 1940

By June 22 France wanted peace and an armistice was signed. Hitler was ecstatic. q. Under the armistice, France was occupied in its northern 2/3rds by Germany. The Third Republic now had its capital at Vichy.

Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary join the Axis

1941

The Germans were alarmed by Soviet intentions in E. Europe. They wanted E. Europe for themselves as a counterpart to industrial Germany. Hitler moved to bring the Balkans back under German control. He blackmailed Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary into joining the Axis. They became lesser partners. Hitler thus barred Soviet expansion in the Balkans and made the Balkan States part of the Nazi new order.

Casablanca Conference

1943

The Allies resolved to accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of the Axis.

Mussolini falls from power

aug 1943

In a spectacular campaign in, the British, Canadians, and Americans conquered Sicily. Mussolini fell from power and the Fascist regime came to an end. A new gov't was established under Marshal Badoglio.

Italy is a cobelligerent

oct 1943

The Badoglio gov’t declared war on Germany and Italy was recognized by the Allies as a “cobelligerent.”

Bretton Woods Conference

1944

The U.S. held an int’l conference of 44 nations at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. They pledged to reduce trade barriers and work towards stable currencies. They created the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which became the foundation of postwar global commerce.

Foundation of United Nations

1945

After WWII, like after WWI, an int’l organization was set up to prevent future war. A conference of all anti-Axis powers, held at San Francisco, founded the United Nations and its charter. The General Assembly was where all member states, no matter what size, would have an equal vote. The Security Council, whose main responsibility was to preserve peace, consisted of the 5 Great Powers, who were to be permanent members, and 10 rotating members chosen for 2-year terms.

Yalta Conference

feb 1945

The Allies reached agreements on Poland and E. Europe, the future of Germany, the war in Asia, and the United Nations. They made Stalin promise the liberated states will have democratic provisional gov’ts in The Declaration on Liberated Europe. This gave a false sense of agreement; there were to be no free elections in Soviet E. Europe. Germany was to be disarmed and divided into four occupation zones under the administration of the Three Powers and France.

Mussolini is killed

April 1945

Mussolini was killed as he was trying to flee Italy.

Germany Surrenders

May 8, 1945

Potsdam Conference

july 1945

A new president, Harry S Truman, represented the United States. Churchill was replaced by a new Prime minister, Clement Attlee after the Labour party’s victory. Stalin still represented the Soviet Union. The Polish border was pushed west into German territory. German East Prussia was divided between the Soviet Union in the north and Poland in the south.

Establishment of the Cominform

1947

A reestablishment of the abandoned Comintern.

Marshall Plan

June 1947

American George C. Marshall invited the Europeans to cooperate on a broad program of reconstruction, for which the U.S. would provide financial support. The plan was not political. It was offered to the USSR but they refused.

The results of this plan exceeded expectations by far. W. Europe improved transportation, infrastructure, and productive capacity. They reduced trade barriers. The plan accelerated recovery, smoothed the process, and encouraged economic cooperation between the European countries. It helped American interests by restoring a world market, but enlarged the divide between the U.S. and Soviets.

Declaration of Universal Rghts

1948

This was adopted largely because of the persuasive powers of the American delegate Eleanor Roosevelt, but had no means of implementing it.

Berlin Blockade

1948 - 1949

The Atlantic Pact and NATO formed

1948

The Atlantic Pact was a military alliance of unlimited duration and a broad scope. Attack against one was an attack against all. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) emerged with a network of military arrangements and a chain of command led by General Eisenhower. Created by U.S. and other countries.

Establishment of the Republic of Ireland

1949

The Federal Republic of Germany

1949

Created in the western-occupied area of Germany.

The Federal Republic of Germany is established

Sept 1949

With its capital in the Rhineland city of Bonn

The German Democratic Republic is established

oct 1949

Its capital was in Berlin.

Treaty with Japan

1951

European Coal and Steel Community

1952

Planned by French administrator Jean Monnet which designed a plan under which 6 W. European countries (France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and Benelux) placed their coal and steel industries under a supreme authority. They agreed to eliminate taxes on coal and steel and put production under a common High Authority with decision-making powers.
Monnet was the first president of this.

Stalin dies

March 1953

Warsaw Pact

1955

The Soviet Union saw the growing unity of W. Europe and drew its 6 satellite states closer. It coordinated the existing network of military alliances in the Warsaw Pact.

Hungarian Uprising

1956

Crushed by the Soviets.

Treaty of Rome

March 25, 1957

The 6 nations of the European Coal and Steel Community (France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux) signed this, creating a large free-trade area/customs union, called the European Economic Community, or Common Market. The goal was to move towards full economic and even political integration.

French Fifth Republic

1958

With Charles de Gaulle as president.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

1960

Formed by oil-exporting countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America formed the to reduce the monopoly of foreign companies and to assume more power over production and prices. In OPEC the Arab states of the Middle East were the most assertive.

Berlin Wall

july 1961

Soviets constructed this wall with barbed wire and troops to keep West Germans from leaving. Hundreds of East Germans who tried to cross it were killed.

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

Proclaimed the Soviet right to intervene in any Communist country to protect socialism against a restoration of a capitalist regime.

Prague spring

1968

When Czechoslovakia’s one-party state was threatened, Brezhnev ruthlessly crushed the the rebellion.

SALT I treaty signed

1972

Nixon and the Soviets reaffirmed the goal of “peaceful coexistence” and signed the SALT (The Strategic Arms Limitation) I treaty, in which each nation agreed to make it possible to work toward equality in weapons. They also agreed to keep weapons at a fixed number for 5 years. The treaty didn’t halt the arms race, but it reduced fears on both sides of a preemptive strike.

Recession begins

1974

The recession was severe, but not as so as the Great Depression. However, the inflation was very intense.

Helsinki Conference

1975

3 decades after WWII, 35 nations (including nations of NATO and Warsaw Pact) met at Helsinki over 2 years in a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. They pledged to work for peace and economic cooperation and the protection of human rights.
p. The Helsinki accords ratified the European territorial boundaries after WWII and set up committees for surveillance of human rights in countries that signed the agreements.
q. The USSR considered the commitment to human rights a small price to pay in return for economic and other benefits of détente. But it failed to see how much the Helsinki accords would encourage people to defy oppression.
r. The Helsinki conference was the high point of the Cold War détente. After, in 1979, Soviet-Western relations turned downward.

Chernobyl

1986

Nuclear accident releases dangerous radioactivity in Ukraine.

Washington Summit

Dec 1987

Gorbachev and Reagan made a remarkable breakthrough by consenting to remove the missiles each had installed in Europe. The Soviets were willing to destroy many more missiles than the U.S. They also talked about reducing long-range weapons.

Berlin Wall comes down

Nov 9, 1989

Many more went to W. Germany.

Reunification of 2 Germanys

Oct 3, 1990

The 4 Allied powers, including the U.S.S.R, gave approval. The 2 states merged their economies. The 2 states became an enlarged Federal Republic of Germany with its capital at Berlin. It was a reunited democracy.

Yugoslavia breaks apart

1991 - 1996

Failed August Coup

aug 1991

The union treaty was the last straw for the hard-liners, military, and secret police. The day before the treaty was to be signed, 8 hard-liners tried to seize power. Gorbachev condemned them.
In Moscow, Yeltsin gained stature when he rallied the Russian legislature in defense of Gorbachev. The coup failed in a few days.

Collapse of USSR

dec 1991

A bloodless revolution had brought the collapse of communism in the USSR, undoing the Russian Revolution of 1917 and ending Communist party rule. The USSR dissolved into its component republics and Russia reemerged.

Treaty of Maastricht

1992

Establishes the European Union

Czech Republic and Slovakia

1993

Peaceful breakup.

Ruling Power

Ivan I of Moscow (Kalita)

1328 - 31 March 1340

Ivan III the Great of Russia

5 April 1462 - 6 November 1505

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Charles V of HRE

1519 - 1556

Ivan IV the Terrible of Russia

13 December 1533 - 26 January 1547

Mary Tudor of England

1553 - 1558

Married Philip II of Spain, had no children. She tried to re-Catholicize England, but made Catholicism even more unpopular. She married Philip of Spain, but the English did not like Philip, Spain, or its Catholicism. She publically executed heretics.

Philip II of Spain

1556 - 1598

Elizabeth of England

1558 - 1603

Under Elizabeth, England became Protestant. She did not marry or have an heir.

James I of England

1603 - 1625

First Stuart king

Mikail Romanov of Russia

26 July 1613 - 14 July 1645

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Second Stuart king, son of James I. Believed in the absolute monarchy, didn't want to rule with Parliament. Executed by Oliver Cromwell.

Louis XIV of France (Sun King)

1643 - 1715

The King of France and reigned for 72 years. No one else has held so powerful of a position for so long. Louis XIV was more than a figurehead. He was the actual and working head of the French government.

CW

1653 - 1658

Oliver Cromwell of England, Lord Protector

Charles II of England

1660 - 1685

Son of Charles I.

Peter the Great of Russia

1684 - 1725

Romanov Dynasty

James II of England

1685 - 1688

Brother of Charles II.

William & Mary of England

1688 - 1702

Started the Revolution of 1688. William was grandson of Charles I, Mary was daughter of James II.

Maria Theresa of Austria

1740 - 1780

Catherine the Great of Russia

1763 - 1797

Louis XVI of France

1774 - 1793

Napoleon of France

1798 - 1814

Alexander I of Russia

24 March 1801 - 1 December 1825

Louis XVIII of France

1814 - 1824

Restoration of the Bourbon monarchy after the defeat of Napoleon.

Charles X of France

16 September 1824 - 2 August 1830

July Ordinances, July revolution of France.

Nicholas I of Russia

December 1825 - 2 March 1855

Louis Philippe of France

1830 - 1848

Not a Bourbon. He was the Duke of Orleans put on the throne by Lafayette.

Charles Albert of Sardinia

1831 - 1849

Victoria of England

1837 - 1901

A distinguished era of material progress, literary accomplishment, and political stability.

Napoleon III of France

1848 - 1870

Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia

1849 - 1860

Nicholas II - Russia

1894 - 1917

Last Romanov

Lenin- Bolshevik

1917 - 1924

Joseph Stalin - Soviet Union

1924 - 1953

Adolf Hitler - Germany

1934 - 1945

Chamberlain- England PM

1937 - may 1940

Appeasement policy

Churchill- England PM

may 1940 - 1945

Khrushchev - Soviet Union

1953 - 1964

Charles de Gaulle - French Fifth Republic

1959 - 1969

Brezhnev - Soviet Union

1964 - 1982

Margaret Thatcher - British PM

1979 - 1990

Andropov/Chernenko-USSR

1982 - 1985

Gorbachev - Soviet Union

1985 - 1991

Boris Yeltsin - Russian Republic

June 1991 - 2000

Yeltsin became president of the Russian Republic in an overwhelming victory over the Communists. He was the first president in Russian history to be elected by popular vote.

Vladimir Putin - Russian Republic

2000 - 2008