The Early Masters of Art Song

Lied

Haydn

1732 - 1809

Esterházy- Hungary
Christian Felix Weisse
1781 Lieder- notable piano parts. Songs notated on 3 staves
1797 Gott, Erhalte den Kaiser- became Austrian national anthem
Anne Hunter
1794-95 12 English canzonettas; music more interesting than text

Zelter

1738 - 1832

Proponent of music education. Close relationship with Goethe.

Mozart

1756 - 1791

Zumsteeg

1760 - 1802

Known for ballads. Modeled off of Scottish and British. Influenced Schubert.

Beethoven

1770 - 1827

Carl Maria von Weber

1786 - 1826

Leyer und Schwert op. 41-43 (Körner)
Die Vier Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten (Gubitz)

Loewe

1796 - 1869

Schubert

1796 - 1828

Mendelssohn Hensel

1805 - 1847

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy

1809 - 1847

R. Schumann

1810 - 1856

Wagner

1813 - 1883

Birthday of Lied

October 14, 1814

Schubert composes "Gretchen am Spinnrade"

Schubert "Erlkönig"

1815

First Song Cycle

April 1816

An die ferne Geliebte, composed by Beethoven

Loewe "Erlkönig"

1818

C.W. Schumann

1819 - 1896

Mayrhofer and Schubert live together

1819 - 1821

Good friends. Hellenic themes. Collaborated on 47 songs.

Schubertiaden

1820 - 1825

Meetings of Schubert's friends and followers for the purpose of sharing art, ideas, and music

Schubert "Die Schöne Müllerin"

1824

Musical figures, color symbolism

Schubert "Winterreise"

1827

Brahms

1833 - 1897

Schumann "Davidsbündler"

1834

Imaginary society to defeat Philistines; Neue Zeitschwift für Musik magazine.

Schumann Liederjahre

1840

R. & C.W. Schumann Marry

1840

R. & C.W. Schumann "Liebesfrühling"

1841

Joint opus

Mahler

1860 - 1911

Wolf

1860 - 1903

Strauss

1864 - 1949

Wolf "Mörike-Lieder"

1888

book of lieder with texts by Mörike

Wolf's Miracle Year

1888

Wolf "Eichendorff-Lieder"

1889

book of lieder with texts by Eichendorff

Wolf "Goethe-Lieder"

1890

book of lieder with texts by Goethe

Wolf "Spanisches Liederbuch"

1891

Texts translated by Paul Heyse and Emanuel Geibel

Wolf "Italienisches Liederbuch"

1892

Translated by Paul Heyse

Brahms "Deutsche Volkslieder"

1894

Wolf "Michelangelo Lieder"

1897

Mélodie

Berlioz

1803 - 1869

Liszt

1811 - 1886

Gounod

1818 - 1893

Viardot

1821 - 1910

Franck

1822 - 1890

Berlioz' 1st Important Cycle

1829

Irlande

Saint-Säens

1835 - 1921

Délibes

1836 - 1891

Bizet

1838 - 1875

Chabrier

1841 - 1894

Massenet

1842 - 1912

Fauré

1845 - 1924

Fauré's 1st Period

1845 - 1885

Poème d'un jour, Après un rêve, Lydia

Duparc

1848 - 1933

Chausson

1855 - 1899

Chaminade

1857 - 1944

Hahn

1874 - 1947

Fauré's 2nd Period

1885 - 1906

Clair de Lune, Spleen, Green

Fauré "La Bonne Chanson"

1892 - 1893

Second Verlaine cycle, written at summer home. Verlaine wrote them in anticipation of his marriage to Mathilde Mauté de Fleurville. Lydia theme is present. Crowning work of Fauré.

Fauré "Le parfum impérissable"

1897

Poetry by Leconte de Lisle. Opus 76

Fauré's 3rd Period

1906 - 1924

Developed hearing problems. Only middle register was accurate, so his songs of this period reflect that.

Faure "La Chanson d'Ève"

1906 - 1910

Op. 95. Clear arpeggiations. Very sparse accompaniment.

Hettich "Vocalises"

1907

Set of vocalises by Honnegeur, Iber, Ravel, Roussel, Fauré

Fauré's Final Years

1914 - 1924

Shorter, warmer, less austere than Le jardin clos. Le Mirage and L'Horizon Chimérique

Fauré "Le jardin clos"

1914

Op. 106. Most sparsely scored of his song cycles.

Poetry

Lessing

1729 - 1781

Helped steer Germans away from French literary model. Greek & Roman background. Awakens interest in Anacreon (wine & love)

Herder

1744 - 1803

Study of folk poetry

Goethe

1749 - 1832

Goethe "The Sorrows of Young Werther"

1774

Novel Launches Romantic Movement

Goethe "Erlkönig"

1782

Uhland

1787 - 1862

Poems mirrored simplicity of folk poetry. Brahms, Grieg, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Schubert.

Heine

1797 - 1856

Mörike

1804 - 1875

Des Knaben Wunderhorn

1808

Collection of folk lyrics. Compiled by Achim von Arnim and Brentano. Established Romantic themes of hunger & starvation, nature, love, war, death, religion, humor.

Baudelaire

1821 - 1867

Heine "Buch der Lieder"

1827

Including "Lyrisches Intermezzo," the text for Schumann's "Dichterliebe" and Mendelssohn songs

Verlaine

1844 - 1896

symbolist poetry

Baudelaire's Translations of Poe

1846 - 1847

Baudelaire "Les Fleurs du Mal"

1857

scandalous themes: sex, death, homosexuality, the sense of smell and fragrances to evoke nostalgia. Moving away from Romanticism

Baudelaire Attends Wagner Concerts

1860

Paris. Was a great supporter. Psychological reaction to music

Historical Context

Klinger "Sturm und Drang"

1777

Play title coined movement from 1760s-1780s. Combination of French and German styles; less important to follow rules/form, more important to say something meaningful.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Rising of the middle and lower classes

Napoleon's Reign

May 1804 - June 1815

Brothers Grimm "Kinder- und Hausmärchen"

1812

First edition. Shed influence of French Englightenment

Congress of Vienna

November 1814 - June 1815

Metternich's suppression of liberalism and nationalism lead to uprising of private salons for growth of ideas

Biedermeier Period

1815 - 1848

Social phenomenon centered on family and meaningful relationships. Simple, accessible music for home (salons) preferred.

Metternich

May 1821 - March 1848

2nd Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire. Paranoid of revolt. Suppressed students and sharing of ideas.

July Revolution

1830

Heine and other artists move to France as a result

Brothers Grimm "Deutsches Wörterbuch"

1852

German Nationalism

Semaine Sanglante

May 22, 1871 - May 28, 1871

Paris commune. Thousands killed. Verlaine survived it, went into hiding