Markus Sarakaila, Niilo Viheriäranta, Vilhelm Toivonen 17KB
Jesus was a Jew by his origins, but later on led a new branch from Judaism to Christianity. He taught his 12 apostles, that before and after the crucifixion of Jesus built and spread the religion and teachings of Jesus. The bible was constructed from 200 to 300 AD from oral information.
The period of apostolic church is believed to have ended to the death of the last apostole, Anatolia.
Main reasons for the persecutions were public opinion, legal basis, and government motivation.
There were many understandable reasons for the persecutions to be justified. First and foremost, when Christianity was separated from Judaism, it wasn't seen anymore as a bizarre sect of this religion, but instead as a superstitio, described as "irregular religious practices". This was the thing that government was worried about. Other reasons why people saw this as an unacceptable cult: they worshipped a convicted criminal, refused to swear by the emperor's genius, harshly criticized Rome in their holy books, and suspiciously conducted their rites in private.
The empire-wide persecution of Christians lasted for 74 years, the most intense phase being from 313 AD --> 324, before Roman emperor Constantine the great decreed tolerance for the religion.
During this time the early episcopal developed, and persecution was really intense.
The two main denominations were born: eastern (Greek) orthodoxy and western (Latin) Catholicism.
East-West Schism, formally dated as 1054, was a result of slowly growing estrangement between East and West, due to nature of papal primacy and certain doctrinal matters like the Filioque. Despite that, more significant factors for the intensifying of the division were cultural and linguistic differences.
Crusades were military conflicts conducted by European Christians, against Muslims for gaining control over the profitable trade routes going through the Middle-East, and establishment of European influence over the region. Church also needed money, so while expanding the Christian domain, robbing was also done on the side .
Muslims also possessed the Holy Land, since the conquests of 7th and 8th century, so Christians had no business to the sacred places of in the Holy Land. This was a great motivator and a reason to do some conquering and stealing.
Three most important protestant reformations were 1. Lutheran 2. Reformed (Calvinist, Presbyterian etc.) 3. Anglican traditions
The beginning of the reformations are considered to originate from Martin Luther. He started out as a lawyer, but ended up being a monk, after surviving a storm. After he had studied the bible, he realized, that many things in the current Church are not in harmony with the bible and it's teachings. He published a list of 95 Theses, concerning the twisted act of the Church selling indulgences. He also thought that everyone should be able to understand the context of the bible, so he translated it to Germany, so anyone could read it, not only the priests.
Calvinism (also called the reformed tradition, reformed protestantism, reformed Christianity, or the reformed faith) is a reformation, gotten it's name from their theology of John Calvin. Name can be misleading, as there's no single founder for this reformation, but a wide range of influences affecting on it.
English reformation happened, because Henry VII, former king of England, wanted to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. He had to break up with Rome and he signed himself as the head of the English Church. This led to periods of powerful reformations led by staunch conservatives.
The Catholic Counter-Reformation was a response to the ongoing Protestant Reformations, where the Catholic Church tried to stop the spread of Protestant Reformations. Means included founding of new religious orders, such as Jesuits, the establishment of seminaries for the proper training of priests, renewed worldwide missionary activity, and the development of new yet orthodox forms of spirituality. Other means were:
- Council of Trent, where Pope Paul III addressed issues concerning corruption and basically everything what the Protestants were complaining about. Anyway, all Protestant doctrinal objections and changes were uncompromisingly rejected.
- Catholic missions to colonies such as Americas to spread Christianity.