Events Shaping New Testament

General

Seleucids take control of Palestine from Ptolemies

198 BC - 142 BC

Antiochus Epiphanes invades Egypt and subjugates Palestine

169 BC

Mattathias Maccabeus leads Jews in revolt against Seleucid dynasty

168 BC - 167 BC

Judas Maccabeus leads Jewish revolt against Seleuicd dynasty and wins religious freedom

165 BC

Rededication of Jerusalem Temple

164 BC

Essene community established at Qumran

Approx. 150 BC - 125 BC

Simon Maccabeus establishes Hasmonean dynasty

142 BC - 134 BC

John Hyrcanus

134 BC - 104 BC

Aristobulus

104 BC - 103 BC

Alexander Jannaeus

103 BC - 76 BC

Lucretius

99 BC - 55 BC

Middle Platonism

80 BC - 220 AD

Salome Alexandra

76 BC - 67 BC

Aristobulus II

67 BC - 63 BC

Pompey invades Jerusalem

63 BC

Hyrcanus II

63 BC - 40 BC

Israel under control of Mark Antony

42 BC - 41 BC

Aristobulus III

40 BC - 35 BC

Parthians invade Syria

40 BC

Antony and Cleopatra defeated by Octavian

31 BC

Rabbis Shammai and Hillel emerge and influence religious life of Jews

30 BC - 10 AD

Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180 CE

Philo

25 BC - 50 AD

Birth of Jesus

Approx. 5 BC

Seneca

4 BC - 65 AD

Annas is High Priest

6 CE - 15 CE

Augustus annexed Judea as a Roman Province

6 AD - 41 AD

Caiaphas, High Priest

18 AD - 37 AD

John the Baptist's ministry begins

26 AD - 27 AD

Jesus begins ministry

26 AD

Jesus' ministry in Galilee and Judea

26 AD - 29 AD

Jesus' death and resurrection

30 AD

Stephen becomes first Christian martyr

31 AD

Peter imprisoned in Jerusalem

44 AD

James the Apostle is beheaded

44 AD

The Jerusalem Council

48 AD - 49 AD

Jews expelled from Rome

48 AD - 49 AD

Plutarch

50 AD - 120 AD

Epictetus

55 CE - 135 CE

Persecuted Christians leave Rome and settle in Pella

62 AD - 64 AD

Peter goes to Rome

62 AD

James, brother of Jesus, martyred in Jerusalem

62 AD

Nero's persecution of Christians

Approx. 62 AD

Post apostolic era begins

65 AD - 95 AD

First Jewish War with Rome

66 AD - 73 AD

Destruction of Jerusalem

70 AD

Dominating influence of Pharisees and rabbis

70 AD - 95 AD

Siege of Masada

73 AD - 74 AD

Josephus writes Jewish War

75 AD

Christians persecuted in Asia Minor

81 AD - 96 AD

Council of Jamnea

90 AD

Josephus writes Antiquities of the Jews

93 AD

Josephus dies in Rome

100 AD

Second Jewish War

132 AD - 135 AD

Bar Kochba rebellion put down by Rome

Bar Kochba Revolt

132 AD - 135 AD

Fall of Jerusalem

135 AD

Gnosticism flourishes

135 AD

Herodian Dynasty

Herod the Great appointed King

37 BC

Herod the Great captures Jerusalem and begins reign

37 BC

Herod begins rebuilding temple in Jerusalem

20 BC - 19 BC

Herod the Great dies

4 BC

Archelaus

4 BC - 6 AD

(Herod) Philip

4 BC - 34 AD

Herod Antipas

4 BC - 39 AD

Herod Agrippa I

41 AD - 44 AD

Herod Agrippa II

44 ad - 100 ad

Romans

Julius Caesar

100 BC - 44 BC

Cicero

63 BC - 43 BC

Julius Caesar deified by Augustus as 'son of the god'

42 BC

Augustus

27 BC - 14 AD

Augustus establishes proconsuls in Judea

6 AD

Coregency of Caeser Augustus and Tiberius

12 AD - 14 AD

Tiberius

14 AD - 37 AD

Pontius Pilate serves as procurator of Judea

26 AD - 36 AD

Gaius Caligula

37 AD - 41 AD

Seneca of Rome

40 AD - 65 AD

Claudius

41 AD - 54 AD

Nero

54 AD - 68 AD

Persecution of Christians begins ca. AD62

Rome is burned

64 AD

Turmoil in Rome (4 emperors)

68 AD - 69 AD

Domitian

81 AD - 96 AD

Hadrian

117 AD - 138 AD

Writing of the New Testament

Paul's Seven Letters

Approx. 40 AD - Approx. 50 AD

Paul's correspondence with churches and mission coworkers

49 AD - 62 AD

Writing of Romans

49 AD - 51 AD

Writing of Gospels and Revelation

Approx. 60 AD - Approx. 100 AD

Possible production of Mark and Luke

60 AD - 69 AD

Writing of Acts, 2 Peter and 1 Timothy

Approx. 90 AD - Approx. 130 AD

Paul

Birth of Paul

Approx. 5 AD

Paul's conversion and early activity

31 AD - 42 AD

Paul in Tarsus

33 AD - 44 AD

The Conversion of the apostle Paul

Approx. 34 AD

Paul begins first missionary journey with Barnabas

46 AD - 48 AD

Acts 13 - 14

Paul's ministry in Corinth

49 AD - 51 AD

Paul's second missionary journey begins

49 AD - 52 AD

Paul's third missionary journey

52 AD - 55 AD

Paul in Ephesus

53 AD - 55 AD

Paul's arrest in Jerusalem and imprisonment in Caeserea and Rome

55 AD - Approx. 58 AD

Paul imprisoned in Rome

58 AD - 60 AD

Peter and Paul die in Rome under Nero's persecution

62 AD - 64 AD

End of Apostolic era