Am I missing anything or is a date/ some information wrong? E-mail me at Luke@sellingrestaurants.com
Goes to china, writes a journal about his experiences, inspires westward expansion.
Florentine Poet and writer, set standard for rennaisance literature
Humanist, lived in Italy
The roots of conflict were started when the king of France (King Philip IV) says the land in France that England owns is his, not England's
French lose against the British horribly
Always a looming shadow over europe's lower classes during the early and middle renaisance.
beginning of AP euro, pretty much.
States that there will be seven princes, or electors, that will choose the Holy Roman Emperor. 4 of those princes are secular (nonreligious), 3 are ecclesiastical (bishops and priests)
Hot bed of northern renaissance proliferation, huge power in trade, they join to protect their own interests.
1,000+ English men are killed by hailstorm. Sign treaty with the French in may of 1360. French pay huge ransom for their king, English take most of the French cities. This ended the first phrase of the 100 years war.
Widowed, writes for money, early feminist. Humanist.
Hanseatic League goes to war with Denmark, wins.
Pope Gregory XI goes back to Rome to die so the papacy will move back to Rome. in 1378, Pope Urban VI is elected as the new pope. This upsets the Cardinals and the French, so they elect their own pope, AntiPope Clement VII in 1378. In 1408, due to the popes not appearing at the council to create one pope, John XXIII is created as pope. it is resolved in the council of Constantine where all three popes step down and Martin V is the new pope.
Both remain intertwined/allies. Fairly tolerant of jews and such, mostly Roman Catholic.
Served after Clement VII
Peasant who is told by God to fight, is a virgin, leads French people to victory. Turning point in the war until she is captured and killed in 1431.
Convince other two popes to step down, pope Martin V is left.
King of Burgundy
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French crown upon the death of King Charles VI of France. It was signed in the French city of Troyes on 21 May 1420 in the aftermath of Henry's successful military campaign in France.
France has a council that controls the pope. can appoint French bishops, monarch owns French revenue,
Arguably the most important invention in history due to its ability to print books instead of having them all handwritten. Contributed immensely to the spread of ideas and education
Renaissance version of Humanism.
English house of Lancaster versus the English house of York. Basically a civil war between the two houses. House of Lancaster wins, and a new king is crowned (Henry VII). He marries Elisabeth of the house of York to unite England. The new house is called the Ludor House
Wrote "The handbook of the militant christian" in 1503, and "The praise of Folly" in 1509. Big christian humanist
King of Burgundy until its downfall. King after Philip the Good
Arguably most important writer of the Rennisance (Wrote the prince in 1513). Came up with Divine Law
Proposes a solar system that goes around the sun.
Based off of akhams razor.
Puts it out a few weeks before he dies so he doesn't get persecuted.
Wrote "Utopia". Educated by Anglican Church because he wouldn't join. Began the idea that lead to Communism. Worked close to king Henry 8th of England. Chancellor of England.
(to jews and muslims and other non christians) they must convert to christianity, leave, or die.
Spread of renaissance Ideas to the north
Rome increasingly seen as cultural center, more scientific observations are impacting art. Artists are seen as geniuses. Court life is valued.
Catholic Monk who is angry with churches corruption, starts protestant movement by writing the 95 theses.
Switzerland, differs with Luther, thinks the Eucharist is symbolic only.
Persuades pope to allow him to send missions to Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Founds the Jesuits.
funded by Spain, Columbus travels to the Americas. First noted time that europeans have stepped foot on the Americas.
Pracelsus: rejects Aristotle and Galen
further investigates research in the body
- Begins pharmaceuticals/pharmacology
Started by none other than Christopher Columbus himself. What a dude.
Beginning of the Hapsburg-Valois Wars.
Fight for domination of Europe between the houses of the Hapsburg and the Valois.
due to disease and mistreatment by Europeans
Spains population doubles
Englands pop increases by 70%
-gold peaks in 1550s, silver in 1590s
-inflation can destroy life savings
Positives: lifetime of debt gets taken away
Government likes inflation
Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Creates "institute of christian religion" in 1536, starts Calvinism.
Initially opposes the reformation, wants to divorce his wife in 1527, Catholic Church doesn't allow him to, so he creates the Anglican Church.
Religious reforms caused by martins "95 theses"
Started the protestant movement
Bible gets translated into languages other than latin.
Written by Martin Luthor. #1 says to get rid of all rituals, #2 talks directly to the nobles and gets them to follow him, and in #3, he calls the pope an antichrist.
seeking unnatural colors / coloring different
elongated or exaggerated shapes dealing with the human body
Succeed mainly due to myths spread about them (Quetziquatl) and the spread of disease.
Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) states that anyone can kill Martin Luther.
The peasants are tired of the Catholic Churches BS, demand religious and secular reform, Led by Thomas Muntzer. this leads to a split in the protestant movement.
Splits due to reactions to the Peasants war of 1525. Luther does not support the peasants war. Basically, the upper classes do not approve of the Peasants war and neither does Luther, while the lower classes approve of the peasants war.
Henry VIII of England wants to Divorce his wife, pope says he can't, Henry VIII makes new religion in 1534 that permits him to divorce.
Peaceful, middle/lower class movement. Adult baptism. They are seen as radicals and attacked. An example of this is the city of munster,
Suleiman the Magnificent sieges Vienna
Protestant princes of Holy Roman Empire form an alliance against their King Charles V.
Expands Russia to the west.
King Henry VIII creates a new church by the Act of Supremacy of 1534. He decides to do this because he wants to divorce his wife, and calls this new church the Anglican Church. He is the leader of the Anglican Church,
Created to spread the Catholic Church's ideas and to spread the word of God.
Started the movement for the King of France to remove the protestants from his kingdom. In an effort to advertise their movement, the protestants scared the king by placing a poster advertising protestantism on his bedroom door, causing him to begin banning protestantism.
Beheaded by Elizabeth I for trying to come up with a plot to kill her.
255 clergy intermittently meet to try and reform the Catholic Church. This meeting is due to the Protestant Reformation. This meeting clarifies and restates what the Catholic Church stood for.
Records evidence of heliocentrism.
Tycho designs his own instruments, finds new comets and stars. questions the model of the universe, brings up heliocentrism
Continues brahe’s work, tries to prove heliocentrism
People are being burnt at the stake for this stuff
King of England for a few years.
Old world views are undermined, and many desire to understand natural law and the world around them.
Named after John Calvin, though the movement really started with Huldrtch Zwingli.
Presbyterians: Scottish Calvinists. Huguenots: French Calvinists. Dutch Reformed Church: Dutch Calvinists. Puritans: English Calvinists.
Queen of England for a few years.
King of Spain
due to Mary I's rule. She was catholic.
The princes of the Holy Roman Empire determine the religion of the land.
Virgin queen, very strong leader. brought on a golden age of England due to her stability.
Conflict of Hapsburgs VS Valois ends after 60 years due to them running out of money
Pope innocent VIII kills 200,000 european women for being “witches”
James the 1st of england is terrified of witchcraft
Kills many women for being witches
1661-1662: witch fever
All of europe shifts mid 17th ce-18ce saying that witchcraft is a lie and not to kill people over it
Gains immense power due to wars, and kings bowing money from them to fund it,
Inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
says that we’ve relied on people that were wrong for so long and only through observation and documentation can we find the truth
Called empirically based evidence
works with god because god people wanted people like him to disprove catholicism
the papal index states which books are not permitted to be read by people in the Catholic Church. Church claims these books denounce God.
Publishes the starry messenger in 1510
Written in Italian for the elite
he says he isn’t going against god, if something doesn’t add up, then there was an error in translation
English and spanish enjoy theater
English plays are more popular
Continues brahe’s work, tries to prove heliocentrism
People are being burnt at the stake for this stuff
wrote “political economy”
more wealth you acquire, more stable you become
Spanish slaughter 7,000-11,000 Calvinists. The soldiers do this because they aren't being paid, so they pillage Antwerp during their occupation. The Calvinists are driven out.
Focused on the heart and veins and arteries
Sees it as a perfect system
we begin seeing what kills humans by experimentation and deductive reasoning
He applies the scientific method to medicine
7 states unite and call themselves dutch. These states belonged to the northern province of Spain.
french mathematician and philosopher
Mathematical principles provide the key to discovering things
“I think therefore I am”
says doubt shows us the truth
Instability and no clear or lasting Russian leader.
Baroque: do curvature to show motion and emotion
Contrast between light and dark
Lack of restraint
Larger than life
Evolves from mannerism
Becomes the Tsar of Russia
Catholic Hapsburg is crowned the king of bohemia and emperor of holy roman emperor
Rudolph pass the letter of majesty states that there were guarantees of religious freedom
they do not allow this to pass
Many people meet in city of Prague, decide to not listen to king
The protestant nobles put the 3 convoys of the king on trial
Catholic men are found guilty, thrown out of the window bc they were found guilty from the state
Austrian Hapsburg ruler
Fredrick V, leading rebellion
-protestants start becoming more and more persecuted
-125,000 mercenaries help spread catholic influence to holy roman empire
Margaret Cavendish: first incident of sci-fi entertainment
-contributes to the scientific method but doesn’t jump on the bandwagon because she feels like they will use it agains women
-people listen to her to a degree, but dont do anything
-society is very patriarchal, men only
Raison D'état, which means increase state power. He was an advisor to Louis XIII
Christian IV joins the war
Danes suffer a huge loss
Reclaims all protestant land. stated by Ferdinand II
Gustavus destroys the HRE, Gustavus dies in the next battle, but his army wins
Treaty of Prague ends Swedish phrase
- Pauses war for 40 years
War with Spain
Austrian Hapsburg ruler
king needs money to fight the incoming army, so he assembles parliament. doesn't last long
- universal law of gravitation is developed at this time
- 3 laws of motion:
- If somethings moving it will forever move in that direction
- Decellaration/ acceleration occurs from impacts
- World machine: basic level of all creation, all of these things are a perfect system
- Says that this system was designed, not created randomly
- Deism: god made all things, but he left and he isn’t interacting
founder of modern entomology, makes very deep and detail orientated illustrations
-Went on an expedition for science
-astronomer, finds comet, husband takes credit for it
-1709: dictates some of their discoveries like sun spots
-proves that the universe is always changing, and it isn’t perfect
-husband dies in 1710, not allowed to continue her work because shes a women
Ends major conflict. The holy roman empire is gone as any kind of government. king is more of a courtesy. Permanently settles religions
Religious wars end here at 1648
polish-lithuanian cossacks launch rebellion against Poland after 30 years war
Works for king Louis 14 (1665-1683)
1. interest of state is most important
2. Goal of mercantilism is to build the state
General of finance for king Louis 14
New king of Poland-Lithuania. attempts to save commonwealth after deluge. fails miserably.
He held the finance post during the period 1777-1781 and helped make decisions that were critical in creating political and social conditions that contributed to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. "Necker is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret." He was recalled to royal service just before the Revolution actually did start, but remained in office for only a brief period of time. His elder brother was the mathematician Louis Necker (1730–1804).
Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism
Creation of the factory system, Urbanization, transportation revolutionized, free trade. A governments role is to protect
Wife of King Louis XVI, killed during the revolution along with her husband. Hated for spending enormous amounts of money on clothing, ect.
A shy king who genuinely cares about his people, but isn't very good at his job as king. He is executed during the French Revolution to send a message.
Freed American colonies from Britain with assistance from France
Middle class and bankers fighting a revolutionary war against stockholders.
Allows protestants to worship freely and protects them.
The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate). Summoned by King Louis XVI, it was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, inviting the other two to join, against the wishes of the King. This signals the outbreak of the French Revolution.
Drafted over 32 months beginning on 6 October 1788, the legislation was designed to redress the Commonwealth's political defects. The system of Golden Freedoms, also known as the "Nobles' Democracy," had conferred disproportionate rights on the nobility (szlachta) and over time had corrupted politics. The adoption of the Constitution was preceded by a period of agitation for—and gradual introduction of—reforms beginning with the Convocation Sejm of 1764 and the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the Commonwealth's last king.
Voice of Austria-Hungary, but Metternick has the real control over the country. basically, he is a puppet.
The invention of the cotton gin causes a slavery boom
Rebuilds parliament with a gothic style after it is destroyed.
Writes many books where his main character of the book is trying to move up the social hierarchy.
Art form involving extreme emotion. Anti-industrial revolution.
Rural emigration increases, birthrate is still down.
30,000 children a year are abandoned at orphanages, rich and poor classes hate eachother.
Women are devoted to the family/home, not in public sphere. Victorian attire, very suppressing for women.
Upper class (aristocrats), Middle class (Bourgeoisie, factory owners), Working class (factory workers + domestic servants), and the Lower class (unemployed)
Tries to unify italy
Writes many books bringing the harshness of child labor to the forefront of society.
Watched his father to jail, influenced his work. Wrote many gothic literature pieces. Humble beginnings.
Prevented imported grain, helps large landowners. Liberals repeal in 1846
The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
Sees the life and struggles of common people in London, moves to Paris due to oppression in Prussia, writes Communist manifesto.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the Act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament". Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs. The number of electors in a borough varied widely, from a dozen or so up to 12,000. Frequently the selection of MPs was effectively controlled by one powerful patron
Due to bad sanitation and living conditions. Human feces mixed with water. No toilets.
Children from ages 9-12 are not allowed to work more than 9 hours a day.
universal male suffrage, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and finally there are no property requirements in order to join parliament. Parliament refuses to act, fails because it doesn't include women. Britain isn't ready for a democracy.
Europeans tried to get Asia addicted to opium, so they could make easy profit off of the Chinese. Leads to opium war.
Results in Europe (more specifically England) having higher control in China and Asia as a whole
Millions of people die due to starvation, 50-80% of income goes to food.
Frederick William IV, the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne Cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 rejected the title of Emperor of the Germans offered by the Frankfurt Parliament as not the Parliament's to give. In 1857, he suffered a stroke and was left incapacitated until his death.
Any children 10 or younger is not allowed to work in the mines
Over three million Irish die. Potatoes were infected with blight, sellers of food refused to lower prices for the Irish, many millions starved to death. England did nothing to prevent their deaths; was blamed for it. In the long term, it caused a dent in the Ireland-English relationship.
They believe that communism will become the final form of humanity, new society without class, wealth is shared equally.
Results in breakdown of the concert of Europe, all of the revolutions that happen in 1848 fail due to the fact that they can't agree on what will happen after they succeed.
Born to a peasant family in the Siberian village of Pokrovskoye, Rasputin had a religious conversion experience after taking a pilgrimage to a monastery in 1897. He has been described as a monk or as a "strannik" (wanderer, or pilgrim), though he held no official position in the Russian Orthodox Church. After traveling to St. Petersburg, either in 1903 or the winter of 1904–5, Rasputin captivated some church and social leaders. He became a society figure, and met the Tsar in November 1905. In late 1906, Rasputin began acting as a healer for the Tsar and his wife Alexandra's son Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia and was Nicholas' only heir (Tsarevitch). At court, he was a divisive figure, seen by some Russians as a mystic, visionary, and prophet, and by others as a religious charlatan. The high point of Rasputin's power was in 1915, when Nicholas II left St Petersburg to oversee Russian armies fighting World War I, increasing both Alexandra and Rasputin's influence. As Russian defeats in the war mounted, however, both Rasputin and Alexandra became increasingly unpopular. In the early morning of 30 December [O.S. 17 December] 1916, Rasputin was assassinated by a group of conservative noblemen who opposed his influence over Alexandra and the Tsar.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable"—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu, and Gandhi ji, and unofficially known as the Father of the Nation.
Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, he later developed his own version of Marxism, Trotskyism. Initially supporting the Menshevik Internationalists faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he joined the Bolsheviks ("majority") just before the 1917 October Revolution, immediately becoming a leader within the Communist Party. He would go on to become one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution.
Invented by Hiram S. Maxim in 1884, the first automatic machine gun was birthed in the United States.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. He was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the executions of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War. Soviet historians portray Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.
The Schlieffen Plan was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914. Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen, the Chief of the Imperial Army German General Staff from 1891 to 1906, devised in 1905 and 1906 a deployment plan for a war-winning offensive, in a one-front war against the French Third Republic. After the war, the German official historians of the Reichsarchiv and other writers, described the plan as a blueprint for victory. German historians claimed that the plan had been ruined by Generaloberst (Colonel-General) Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, the Commander-in-Chief of the German army after Schlieffen retired in 1906, who was dismissed after the First Battle of the Marne
Consists of Great Britain, France, and Russia, and made in 1907. ended in 1917
The Allies included Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. These countries fought against the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.
Total War is when the entire resources and population are mobilized towards the war effort,which takes priority over everything else.Further, Total War also involves prosecuting the war against the entire population of the enemy, not just against its military. ... Conscription into the military for all countries involved.
he Blockade of Germany, or the Blockade of Europe, occurred from 1914 to 1919. It was a prolonged naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers during and after World War I in an effort to restrict the maritime supply of goods to the Central Powers, which included Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. It is considered one of the key elements in the eventual Allied victory in the war. The German Board of Public Health in December 1918 claimed that 763,000 German civilians died from starvation and disease caused by the blockade up until the end of December 1918.An academic study done in 1928 put the death toll at 424,000.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France.
The Franco-British were driven back by the Germans, who were able to invade northern France. French and British rearguard actions delayed the German advance, allowing the French time to transfer forces on the eastern frontier to the west to defend Paris, resulting in the First Battle of the Marne. 700,000+ soliders died in this battle
German victory. 50,000-100,000 dead
The Battle of Charleroi, or the Battle of the Sambre, was fought on 21 August 1914, by the French Fifth Army and the German 2nd and 3rd armies, during the Battle of the Frontiers. 40,000 people died.
The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the First World War. It was a subsidiary action of the Battle of the Frontiers, in which the Allies clashed with Germany on the French borders. 10,000 people died.
an offensive during World War I by the French army and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) against the advancing Germans who had invaded Belgium and northeastern France and were within 30 miles (48 km) of Paris.
The Battle of the Marne was a World War I battle fought from 6–10 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west. Roughly 500,000 soldiers died.
On the afternoon of May 7, 1915, the British ocean liner Lusitania is torpedoed without warning by a German submarine off the south coast of Ireland. Within 20 minutes, the vessel sank into the Celtic Sea. Of 1,959 passengers and crew, 1,198 people were drowned, including 128 Americans
the Lusitania was a British ship and it was carrying a supply of munitions—Germany used these two facts to justify the attack—it was principally a passenger ship, and the 1,201 people who drowned in its sinking included 128 Americans. The incident prompted U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to send a strongly worded note to the German government demanding an end to German attacks against unarmed merchant ships. By September 1915, the German government had imposed such strict constraints on the operation of the nation’s submarines that the German navy was persuaded to suspend U-boat warfare altogether.
Blamed on the jews.
art response to world war 1 and contains nonsense, dim view of society.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun, IPA: [bataj də vɛʁdœ̃], Schlacht um Verdun, IPA: [ʃlaxt ˀʊm ˈvɛɐdœŋ]), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Fortified Region of Verdun (RFV, Région Fortifiée de Verdun) and those of the French Second Army on the right bank of the Meuse. Inspired by the experience of the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915, the Germans planned to capture the Meuse Heights rapidly, because this was an excellent defensive position with good observation for the artillery to bombard Verdun. The Germans hoped that the French would commit their strategic reserve to recapture the position and suffer catastrophic losses in a battle of annihilation, not costly for the Germans because of their tactical advantage.
The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire. It took place between 1 July and 18 November 1916 on both sides of the upper reaches of the River Somme in France. The battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies and was the largest battle of the First World War on the Western Front. More than three million men fought in this battle and one million men were wounded or killed, making it one of the bloodiest battles in human history.
Over 7.5 million people dead from famine and war.
The main events of the revolution took place in and near Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), the then-capital of Russia, where longstanding discontent with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 23 February Old Style (8 March New Style). Revolutionary activity lasted about eight days. It involved mass demonstrations and violent armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy. On 27 February O.S. (12 March N.S.) mutinous Russian Army forces sided with the revolutionaries. Three days later the Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, ending Romanov dynastic rule, and the Imperial Russia. A Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov replaced the Russian Council of Ministers
March 15, 1917
It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, brother of Tsar Nicolas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils (Russian: Soviet) wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs. This immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world's first self-proclaimed socialist state. On 17 July 1918, the Tsar and his family were executed.
Wilson's plan for a postwar world. Land, rebuilding, lasting peace. Rejected because it is seen as too lenient by Europe.
Germany seizes millions of acres of land from Russia due to this peace treaty, millions of soldiers move from Russian front to western front. The capital of Russia is moved from Saint Petersburg to Moscow
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state". The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference in which Vladimir Lenin had organized the "Zimmerwald Left" against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action, and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International.
Reconstructs Europe, France and Great Britain want Germany to be punished, Italy wants land.
Irish home rule never happens, so irish fight english and they declare independence
The British cause the Amirtsar Massacre, which killed 300+ people. This motivates other colonies to seek independence from their European rulers.
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly led to World War I. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties. Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
Mussolini is made prime minister of Italy after his march on Rome.
Extreme inflation, beginning of Weimar Republic collapse.
Joseph stalin comes to power, condemns Lenin's will, begins stalinism, fills government with his supporters.
The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an attempt in 1924 to solve the World War I reparations problem that Germany had to pay, which had bedevilled international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.
The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question". They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929. The Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929. It recognized Vatican City as an independent state, with the Italian government, at the time led by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, agreeing to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States. In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognized in the Constitution of Italy as regulating the relations between the State and the Catholic Church.
The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930.
The Italian army, under the direction of dictator Benito Mussolini, invaded Ethiopian territory on October 2, 1935. One of the first actions done by the Italians was to proclaim the abolition of slavery for the 9 million slaves in all Ethiopia. They occupied the capital Addis Ababa on May 5. Emperor Haile Selassie pleaded to the League of Nations for aid in resisting the Italians. Nevertheless, the country was formally annexed on May 9, 1936 and the Emperor went into exile.