AP european history timeline

Am I missing anything or is a date/ some information wrong? E-mail me at Luke@sellingrestaurants.com


Marco Polo

1254 - 1324

Goes to china, writes a journal about his experiences, inspires westward expansion.

F. Dante Alighieri

1265 - 1321

Florentine Poet and writer, set standard for rennaisance literature

Francis Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Humanist, lived in Italy

100 Years War

1337 - 1453

The roots of conflict were started when the king of France (King Philip IV) says the land in France that England owns is his, not England's

Battle of sluys

June 26, 1340

French lose against the British horribly

Black Death

1348 - Approx. 1550

Always a looming shadow over europe's lower classes during the early and middle renaisance.

Black Death kills 30-50% of European Population

1348 - 1350


Approx. 1350 - 1700

End of the Dark Ages


Rebirth of art and literature


beginning of AP euro, pretty much.

Holy Roman Empire's Golden Bull


States that there will be seven princes, or electors, that will choose the Holy Roman Emperor. 4 of those princes are secular (nonreligious), 3 are ecclesiastical (bishops and priests)

Hanseatic League

1358 - Approx. 1669

Hot bed of northern renaissance proliferation, huge power in trade, they join to protect their own interests.

Treaty of Brétigny

May 1360

1,000+ English men are killed by hailstorm. Sign treaty with the French in may of 1360. French pay huge ransom for their king, English take most of the French cities. This ended the first phrase of the 100 years war.

Christine de Pisan

1365 - 1430

Widowed, writes for money, early feminist. Humanist.

Hanseatic League VS Denmark

1367 - 1370

Hanseatic League goes to war with Denmark, wins.

Hanseatic League dominates trade

Approx. 1370 - Approx. 1500

Pope Urban VI's rule

1378 - 1389

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Pope Gregory XI goes back to Rome to die so the papacy will move back to Rome. in 1378, Pope Urban VI is elected as the new pope. This upsets the Cardinals and the French, so they elect their own pope, AntiPope Clement VII in 1378. In 1408, due to the popes not appearing at the council to create one pope, John XXIII is created as pope. it is resolved in the council of Constantine where all three popes step down and Martin V is the new pope.

Antipope Clement VII's rule

Approx. 20 September 1378 - 16 September 1394

Poland-Lithuania Alliance

1385 - Approx. 1772

Both remain intertwined/allies. Fairly tolerant of jews and such, mostly Roman Catholic.

Pope Benedict XIII

1390 - 1423

Served after Clement VII

Antipope Boniface IX

1394 - 1417

France doubles in size

Approx. 1400 - Approx. 1500

First use of compasses in Europe

Approx. 1400

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Peasant who is told by God to fight, is a virgin, leads French people to victory. Turning point in the war until she is captured and killed in 1431.

Council of constance

1414 - 1418

Convince other two popes to step down, pope Martin V is left.

Pope Martin V

November 1, 1417 - 1431

Philip The Good

1418 - 1467

King of Burgundy

Treaty of Troy

May 21, 1420

The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French crown upon the death of King Charles VI of France. It was signed in the French city of Troyes on 21 May 1420 in the aftermath of Henry's successful military campaign in France.

Portuguese explores West Africa


France's Pragmatic sanction of bourgeois


France has a council that controls the pope. can appoint French bishops, monarch owns French revenue,

Printing Press invented


Arguably the most important invention in history due to its ability to print books instead of having them all handwritten. Contributed immensely to the spread of ideas and education

Humanism (renaissance)

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1600

Renaissance version of Humanism.

Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Renaissance man

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

English house of Lancaster versus the English house of York. Basically a civil war between the two houses. House of Lancaster wins, and a new king is crowned (Henry VII). He marries Elisabeth of the house of York to unite England. The new house is called the Ludor House

Louis XI of France

1461 - 1484

Desiderus Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Wrote "The handbook of the militant christian" in 1503, and "The praise of Folly" in 1509. Big christian humanist

Charles The Bold

1467 - 1477

King of Burgundy until its downfall. King after Philip the Good

G. Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Arguably most important writer of the Rennisance (Wrote the prince in 1513). Came up with Divine Law

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Proposes a solar system that goes around the sun.
Based off of akhams razor.
Puts it out a few weeks before he dies so he doesn't get persecuted.

Burgundy is absorbed by France


Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Wrote "Utopia". Educated by Anglican Church because he wouldn't join. Began the idea that lead to Communism. Worked close to king Henry 8th of England. Chancellor of England.

Spanish Inquisition

November 1, 1478 - July 15, 1834

(to jews and muslims and other non christians) they must convert to christianity, leave, or die.

Northern Renaissance

Approx. 1480 - Approx. 1700

Spread of renaissance Ideas to the north

High Renaissance

Approx. 1480 - Approx. 1550

Rome increasingly seen as cultural center, more scientific observations are impacting art. Artists are seen as geniuses. Court life is valued.


1483 - 1520

Renaissance Painter

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Catholic Monk who is angry with churches corruption, starts protestant movement by writing the 95 theses.

Huldrych Zwingli

1484 - 1531

Switzerland, differs with Luther, thinks the Eucharist is symbolic only.

Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1556

Persuades pope to allow him to send missions to Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Founds the Jesuits.

Columbus sails the ocean blue!


funded by Spain, Columbus travels to the Americas. First noted time that europeans have stepped foot on the Americas.


1493 - 1541

Pracelsus: rejects Aristotle and Galen
further investigates research in the body
- Begins pharmaceuticals/pharmacology

Slave Trade is started


Started by none other than Christopher Columbus himself. What a dude.

Italian Wars of 1494


Beginning of the Hapsburg-Valois Wars.

Hapsburg-Valois Wars

1494 - 1559

Fight for domination of Europe between the houses of the Hapsburg and the Valois.

90% of native population of the Americas die

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1600

due to disease and mistreatment by Europeans

Population and wealth increases immensely

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1570

Spains population doubles
Englands pop increases by 70%
-gold peaks in 1550s, silver in 1590s
-inflation can destroy life savings
Positives: lifetime of debt gets taken away
Government likes inflation

Catholic Church is #1 source of power


Charles V / Charles I

February 24, 1500 - September 21, 1558

Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Creates "institute of christian religion" in 1536, starts Calvinism.

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Initially opposes the reformation, wants to divorce his wife in 1527, Catholic Church doesn't allow him to, so he creates the Anglican Church.

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Religious reforms caused by martins "95 theses"

95 theses

October 31, 1517

Started the protestant movement

Bible gets translated

december 1, 1517 - 1550

Bible gets translated into languages other than latin.

Magellan Circumnavigates the Globe

1519 - 1522

Three Treatises


Written by Martin Luthor. #1 says to get rid of all rituals, #2 talks directly to the nobles and gets them to follow him, and in #3, he calls the pope an antichrist.

Mannerism art movement

Approx. 1520 - Approx. 1580

seeking unnatural colors / coloring different
elongated or exaggerated shapes dealing with the human body

Cortez conquers the Aztecs


Succeed mainly due to myths spread about them (Quetziquatl) and the spread of disease.

Diet of worms


Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) states that anyone can kill Martin Luther.

First Hapsburg-Valois war

1521 - 1525

Holy Roman Empire's Peasants war of 1525


The peasants are tired of the Catholic Churches BS, demand religious and secular reform, Led by Thomas Muntzer. this leads to a split in the protestant movement.

Protestant movement splits


Splits due to reactions to the Peasants war of 1525. Luther does not support the peasants war. Basically, the upper classes do not approve of the Peasants war and neither does Luther, while the lower classes approve of the peasants war.

Charles V (Holy roman Emperor) Sacks Rome


Ideas begin for Anglican Church


Henry VIII of England wants to Divorce his wife, pope says he can't, Henry VIII makes new religion in 1534 that permits him to divorce.

Second Hapsburg-Valois war

1527 - 1529

Anabaptists founded

May 20, 1527

Peaceful, middle/lower class movement. Adult baptism. They are seen as radicals and attacked. An example of this is the city of munster,

Siege of Vienna


Suleiman the Magnificent sieges Vienna

Diet of Augsburg


Jean Bodin

1530 - 1596
  • French catholic lawyer
  • “I am absolutely sure about it”
  • defends absolute monarchy
  • Writes the 6 books of the republic
  • Seeks to prove that absolutism is the right way with secular means
  • Looks at 3 different types of monarchies
  • - monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy
  • Rejects the right to reject tyranny
  • End goal: strength a monarch provides creates order

Schmalkaldic league founded


Protestant princes of Holy Roman Empire form an alliance against their King Charles V.

Michael de Montaigne

1533 - 1592
  • Resigns his office during war of religion
  • resigns to write about tolerance and open mindedness
  • he was skeptic; total certainty is never obtainable
  • If you are sure that you are never sure, how can you be sure about anything
  • Thinks of things in a very 21-century way
  • Makes the design for the modern essay

Ivan Iv (The terrible) of Russia

1533 - 1584

Expands Russia to the west.

Anglican Church is founded by Act of Supremacy


King Henry VIII creates a new church by the Act of Supremacy of 1534. He decides to do this because he wants to divorce his wife, and calls this new church the Anglican Church. He is the leader of the Anglican Church,

Jesuits are founded

August 15, 1534

Created to spread the Catholic Church's ideas and to spread the word of God.

Affair of the Placards

October 17, 1534

Started the movement for the King of France to remove the protestants from his kingdom. In an effort to advertise their movement, the protestants scared the king by placing a poster advertising protestantism on his bedroom door, causing him to begin banning protestantism.

Third Hapsburg-Valois War

1535 - 1538

Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War

1542 - 1544

Mary, Queen of Scots

December 14, 1542 - July 24, 1567

Beheaded by Elizabeth I for trying to come up with a plot to kill her.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

255 clergy intermittently meet to try and reform the Catholic Church. This meeting is due to the Protestant Reformation. This meeting clarifies and restates what the Catholic Church stood for.

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1555

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Records evidence of heliocentrism.
Tycho designs his own instruments, finds new comets and stars. questions the model of the universe, brings up heliocentrism
johannes Kepler:
Continues brahe’s work, tries to prove heliocentrism
People are being burnt at the stake for this stuff

Charles V of HRE defeats Schmalkaldic league


Edward VI of England

February 20, 1547 - July 6, 1553

King of England for a few years.

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - Approx. 1800

Old world views are undermined, and many desire to understand natural law and the world around them.

Population lowers again

Approx. 1550 - Approx. 1650
  • population down, prices are up, metals are down, production down
  • economic cycles distributed
  • War Textiles: cloth, clothes, yarn, ect Everybody was put into lower wages for labor 1550-1650 decrease in population (5 million) HRE lost 30% of its population in 1630s and 1640s Only country that isn’t hit by this is dutch
  • tulip mania

Recession begins

Approx. 1550 - 1600

Calvinism becomes an official religion


Named after John Calvin, though the movement really started with Huldrtch Zwingli.

Presbyterians, Huguenots, Dutch Reformed Church, Puritans


Presbyterians: Scottish Calvinists. Huguenots: French Calvinists. Dutch Reformed Church: Dutch Calvinists. Puritans: English Calvinists.

Mary I of England

July 6, 1553 - 1558

Queen of England for a few years.

Philip II

1554 - 1598

King of Spain

England reverts back to Catholicism


due to Mary I's rule. She was catholic.

Peace of Augsburg


The princes of the Holy Roman Empire determine the religion of the land.

Elizabeth I of England

November 17, 1558 - March 24, 1603

Virgin queen, very strong leader. brought on a golden age of England due to her stability.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis / end of the Hapsburg-Valois War


Conflict of Hapsburgs VS Valois ends after 60 years due to them running out of money

Many people die in France due to religious wars

1560 - 1600

Witchcraft trials peak

Approx. 1560 - Approx. 1640

Pope innocent VIII kills 200,000 european women for being “witches”
James the 1st of england is terrified of witchcraft
Kills many women for being witches
1661-1662: witch fever
All of europe shifts mid 17th ce-18ce saying that witchcraft is a lie and not to kill people over it

Fugger Bank gains power and wealth


Gains immense power due to wars, and kings bowing money from them to fund it,

Sir Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

Inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
says that we’ve relied on people that were wrong for so long and only through observation and documentation can we find the truth
Called empirically based evidence
works with god because god people wanted people like him to disprove catholicism

Papal index is created


the papal index states which books are not permitted to be read by people in the Catholic Church. Church claims these books denounce God.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Publishes the starry messenger in 1510
Written in Italian for the elite
he says he isn’t going against god, if something doesn’t add up, then there was an error in translation

Calvinists attack Catholic Churches in Netherlands


Traveling companies professionalize

Approx. 1570

English and spanish enjoy theater
English plays are more popular

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

ohannes Kepler:
Continues brahe’s work, tries to prove heliocentrism
People are being burnt at the stake for this stuff

Antoine De Montchrestien

1575 - 1621

wrote “political economy”
more wealth you acquire, more stable you become

Spanish Fury / reaction to Calvinists


Spanish slaughter 7,000-11,000 Calvinists. The soldiers do this because they aren't being paid, so they pillage Antwerp during their occupation. The Calvinists are driven out.

William Harvey

1578 - 1657

William Harvey:
Focused on the heart and veins and arteries
Sees it as a perfect system
we begin seeing what kills humans by experimentation and deductive reasoning
He applies the scientific method to medicine

Dutch republic is formed


7 states unite and call themselves dutch. These states belonged to the northern province of Spain.

Hugo Grotius

1583 - 1645
  • Comes up with natural law
  • When you are born, there is a gift give to you
  • You have certain things which can never be taken away from you
  • Life, body, freedom, and honor
  • Very against torture

Dutch dominates economy

1585 - Approx. 1685

British victory in the defeat of Spanish Armada


Food Shortages for peasants

1594 - 1597

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

french mathematician and philosopher
Mathematical principles provide the key to discovering things
“I think therefore I am”
says doubt shows us the truth

Time of Troubles (Russia)

1598 - 1613

Instability and no clear or lasting Russian leader.

Baroque art form

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1750

Baroque: do curvature to show motion and emotion
Contrast between light and dark
Intensely emotional
Lack of restraint
Larger than life
Evolves from mannerism

King James bible is created


Michael Romanov becomes Tsar


Becomes the Tsar of Russia

Bohemian Phase

1618 - 1621

Catholic Hapsburg is crowned the king of bohemia and emperor of holy roman emperor
Rudolph pass the letter of majesty states that there were guarantees of religious freedom
they do not allow this to pass
Many people meet in city of Prague, decide to not listen to king
The protestant nobles put the 3 convoys of the king on trial
Catholic men are found guilty, thrown out of the window bc they were found guilty from the state

Defenestration of Prague


Ferdinand II

1619 - 1637

Austrian Hapsburg ruler

Battle of white mountain


Fredrick V, leading rebellion
-protestants start becoming more and more persecuted
-125,000 mercenaries help spread catholic influence to holy roman empire

Black Plague kills 5% of France

1622 - 1628

Margaret Cavendish

1623 - 1673

Margaret Cavendish: first incident of sci-fi entertainment
-contributes to the scientific method but doesn’t jump on the bandwagon because she feels like they will use it agains women
-people listen to her to a degree, but dont do anything
-society is very patriarchal, men only

Cardinal Richelieu advises king Louis XIII

1624 - 1642

Raison D'état, which means increase state power. He was an advisor to Louis XIII

Danish Phase

1625 - 1629

Christian IV joins the war
Danes suffer a huge loss

Edict of restitution


Reclaims all protestant land. stated by Ferdinand II

Swedish Phase

1630 - 1635

Gustavus destroys the HRE, Gustavus dies in the next battle, but his army wins
Treaty of Prague ends Swedish phrase
- Pauses war for 40 years

French Phase

1635 - 1648

War with Spain

Treaty of Prague


Ferdinand III

1637 - 1657

Austrian Hapsburg ruler

Catalan Revolt of 1640


Scottish invade northern England


king needs money to fight the incoming army, so he assembles parliament. doesn't last long

Issac Newton

1642 - 1727

Creates calculus
- universal law of gravitation is developed at this time
- 3 laws of motion:
- If somethings moving it will forever move in that direction
- Decellaration/ acceleration occurs from impacts
- World machine: basic level of all creation, all of these things are a perfect system
- Says that this system was designed, not created randomly
- Deism: god made all things, but he left and he isn’t interacting

Maria Sibylla Merian

1647 - 1717

founder of modern entomology, makes very deep and detail orientated illustrations
-Went on an expedition for science
Maria Winkelmann:
-astronomer, finds comet, husband takes credit for it
-1709: dictates some of their discoveries like sun spots
-proves that the universe is always changing, and it isn’t perfect
-husband dies in 1710, not allowed to continue her work because shes a women

Peace of Westphalia


Ends major conflict. The holy roman empire is gone as any kind of government. king is more of a courtesy. Permanently settles religions
Lutheranism: north
Catholicism: south
Calvinism: west
Religious wars end here at 1648


1648 - 1660

polish-lithuanian cossacks launch rebellion against Poland after 30 years war

Jean Baptiste Colbert

1665 - 1683

Works for king Louis 14 (1665-1683)
1. interest of state is most important
2. Goal of mercantilism is to build the state
General of finance for king Louis 14

Jan Sobieski III of Poland-Lithuania

May 19, 1674 - June 17, 1696

New king of Poland-Lithuania. attempts to save commonwealth after deluge. fails miserably.

Steam engine invented


Jacques Necker

1732 - 1804

He held the finance post during the period 1777-1781 and helped make decisions that were critical in creating political and social conditions that contributed to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. "Necker is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret."[1] He was recalled to royal service just before the Revolution actually did start, but remained in office for only a brief period of time. His elder brother was the mathematician Louis Necker (1730–1804).

Flying Shuttle Invented (John Kay)


Jeremy Bentham

1748 - 1832

Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism

industrial revolution

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1850

Creation of the factory system, Urbanization, transportation revolutionized, free trade. A governments role is to protect

Marie Antoinette

2 November 1755 - 16 October 1793

Wife of King Louis XVI, killed during the revolution along with her husband. Hated for spending enormous amounts of money on clothing, ect.

7 years war

1756 - 1763

Louis XVI

1774 - 1793

A shy king who genuinely cares about his people, but isn't very good at his job as king. He is executed during the French Revolution to send a message.

American revolution

1776 - 1783

Freed American colonies from Britain with assistance from France

Dutch patriot revolt


Middle class and bankers fighting a revolutionary war against stockholders.

Edict of toleration (Poland)


Allows protestants to worship freely and protects them.

French parliament exiled by king Louis XIV


Food shortages cause unemployment throughout Europe

1788 - 1790

Estates general called by Louis XVI

May 5, 1789

The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate). Summoned by King Louis XVI, it was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, inviting the other two to join, against the wishes of the King. This signals the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Poland constitution of 1791


Drafted over 32 months beginning on 6 October 1788, the legislation was designed to redress the Commonwealth's political defects. The system of Golden Freedoms, also known as the "Nobles' Democracy," had conferred disproportionate rights on the nobility (szlachta) and over time had corrupted politics. The adoption of the Constitution was preceded by a period of agitation for—and gradual introduction of—reforms beginning with the Convocation Sejm of 1764 and the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the Commonwealth's last king.

Francis I of Austria-Hungary

1792 - 1835

Voice of Austria-Hungary, but Metternick has the real control over the country. basically, he is a puppet.

cotton gin invented


The invention of the cotton gin causes a slavery boom

Charles Barry

1795 - 1860

Rebuilds parliament with a gothic style after it is destroyed.

Honore Balzac

1799 - 1850

Writes many books where his main character of the book is trying to move up the social hierarchy.

Romanticism art form

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

Art form involving extreme emotion. Anti-industrial revolution.

Cities grow immensly

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1900

Rural emigration increases, birthrate is still down.

European Crime rates / Orphanage rates explode

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1860

30,000 children a year are abandoned at orphanages, rich and poor classes hate eachother.

Cult of domesticity

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1860

Women are devoted to the family/home, not in public sphere. Victorian attire, very suppressing for women.

New social classes created in European cities

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

Upper class (aristocrats), Middle class (Bourgeoisie, factory owners), Working class (factory workers + domestic servants), and the Lower class (unemployed)

Mazinni (Italy)

1805 - 1872

Tries to unify italy

Elizabeth Barret Browning

March 6, 1806 - June 29, 1861

Writes many books bringing the harshness of child labor to the forefront of society.

Charles Dickens

1812 - 1870

Watched his father to jail, influenced his work. Wrote many gothic literature pieces. Humble beginnings.

Corn laws are passed


Prevented imported grain, helps large landowners. Liberals repeal in 1846

Concert of Europe

1815 - Approx. 1850

The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Sees the life and struggles of common people in London, moves to Paris due to oppression in Prussia, writes Communist manifesto.

George Stephenson creates rocket


Usage of train booms

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1840

Mazinni Forms Young Italy


Reform bill of 1832


The Representation of the People Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the Act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament". Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs. The number of electors in a borough varied widely, from a dozen or so up to 12,000. Frequently the selection of MPs was effectively controlled by one powerful patron

Cholera epidemic in London

Approx. February 1832 - Approx. 1852

Due to bad sanitation and living conditions. Human feces mixed with water. No toilets.

Factory act of 1833


Children from ages 9-12 are not allowed to work more than 9 hours a day.

Abolition of slavery in Great Britain


Peoples charter of 1838


universal male suffrage, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and finally there are no property requirements in order to join parliament. Parliament refuses to act, fails because it doesn't include women. Britain isn't ready for a democracy.

China expels European traders due to opium addiction


Europeans tried to get Asia addicted to opium, so they could make easy profit off of the Chinese. Leads to opium war.

Opium War

1839 - 1842

Results in Europe (more specifically England) having higher control in China and Asia as a whole

Iron production quadruples in England

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

Pierre Joseph writes "what is property" (start of communist ideas)


Crop failures across Europe

1840 - Approx. 1848

Millions of people die due to starvation, 50-80% of income goes to food.

Abolition of slavery in France


Famine spreads across Europe due to Crop Failure

1840 - Approx. 1850

king fredrick william IV

Approx. 7 june 1840 - Approx. 2 January 1861

Frederick William IV, the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne Cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 rejected the title of Emperor of the Germans offered by the Frankfurt Parliament as not the Parliament's to give. In 1857, he suffered a stroke and was left incapacitated until his death.

Mines act of 1842 (UK)


Any children 10 or younger is not allowed to work in the mines

Irish Potato Famine

1845 - 1852

Over three million Irish die. Potatoes were infected with blight, sellers of food refused to lower prices for the Irish, many millions starved to death. England did nothing to prevent their deaths; was blamed for it. In the long term, it caused a dent in the Ireland-English relationship.

Concert of Europe ends

Approx. 1845 - Approx. 1850

Socialism Created


Revolution in France leads to 2nd Republic


Marx/Engels publish The Communist Manifesto


They believe that communism will become the final form of humanity, new society without class, wealth is shared equally.

Harvests begin to improve and famine goes down


Turmoil in Europe challenges conservative order

1848 - 1849

Results in breakdown of the concert of Europe, all of the revolutions that happen in 1848 fail due to the fact that they can't agree on what will happen after they succeed.

Industrial revolution moves from Europe to United States


Factory labor in England makes up 10% of workforce


More than half of industrial children attend Sunday school


bessemer process developed

1851 - 1855

AP euro- Semester 2

Approx. 1860 - 2018

Abolition of slavery in the United States


Grigori Rasputen

January 21, 1869 - December 30, 1916

Born to a peasant family in the Siberian village of Pokrovskoye, Rasputin had a religious conversion experience after taking a pilgrimage to a monastery in 1897. He has been described as a monk or as a "strannik" (wanderer, or pilgrim), though he held no official position in the Russian Orthodox Church. After traveling to St. Petersburg, either in 1903 or the winter of 1904–5, Rasputin captivated some church and social leaders. He became a society figure, and met the Tsar in November 1905. In late 1906, Rasputin began acting as a healer for the Tsar and his wife Alexandra's son Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia and was Nicholas' only heir (Tsarevitch). At court, he was a divisive figure, seen by some Russians as a mystic, visionary, and prophet, and by others as a religious charlatan. The high point of Rasputin's power was in 1915, when Nicholas II left St Petersburg to oversee Russian armies fighting World War I, increasing both Alexandra and Rasputin's influence. As Russian defeats in the war mounted, however, both Rasputin and Alexandra became increasingly unpopular. In the early morning of 30 December [O.S. 17 December] 1916, Rasputin was assassinated by a group of conservative noblemen who opposed his influence over Alexandra and the Tsar.

Mahatama Gandhi

October 2, 1869 - January 30, 1948

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable"—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu, and Gandhi ji, and unofficially known as the Father of the Nation.

Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.

Leon Trotsky

1879 - 1940

Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, he later developed his own version of Marxism, Trotskyism. Initially supporting the Menshevik Internationalists faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he joined the Bolsheviks ("majority") just before the 1917 October Revolution, immediately becoming a leader within the Communist Party. He would go on to become one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution.

triple alliance is formed


Machine gun invented


Invented by Hiram S. Maxim in 1884, the first automatic machine gun was birthed in the United States.

Adolf Hitler

1889 - 1945

Nicholas II

November 1, 1894 - March 15, 1917

Nicholas II or Nikolai II known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. He was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the executions of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War. Soviet historians portray Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.

Schlieffen Plan was created


The Schlieffen Plan was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914. Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen, the Chief of the Imperial Army German General Staff from 1891 to 1906, devised in 1905 and 1906 a deployment plan for a war-winning offensive, in a one-front war against the French Third Republic. After the war, the German official historians of the Reichsarchiv and other writers, described the plan as a blueprint for victory. German historians claimed that the plan had been ruined by Generaloberst (Colonel-General) Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, the Commander-in-Chief of the German army after Schlieffen retired in 1906, who was dismissed after the First Battle of the Marne

Soviet Party first created


Triple entente is created

1907 - 1917

Consists of Great Britain, France, and Russia, and made in 1907. ended in 1917

Allied Powers are formed


The Allies included Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. These countries fought against the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.

Total war

1914 - 1918

Total War is when the entire resources and population are mobilized towards the war effort,which takes priority over everything else.Further, Total War also involves prosecuting the war against the entire population of the enemy, not just against its military. ... Conscription into the military for all countries involved.

Central powers are formed.

June 28, 1914

German Blockade

August 1, 1914 - 1918

he Blockade of Germany, or the Blockade of Europe, occurred from 1914 to 1919. It was a prolonged naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers during and after World War I in an effort to restrict the maritime supply of goods to the Central Powers, which included Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. It is considered one of the key elements in the eventual Allied victory in the war. The German Board of Public Health in December 1918 claimed that 763,000 German civilians died from starvation and disease caused by the blockade up until the end of December 1918.An academic study done in 1928 put the death toll at 424,000.

Eastern front (WW1)

August 1914 - 1917

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France.

Battle of the frontiers

August 7, 1914 - September 13, 1914

The Franco-British were driven back by the Germans, who were able to invade northern France. French and British rearguard actions delayed the German advance, allowing the French time to transfer forces on the eastern frontier to the west to defend Paris, resulting in the First Battle of the Marne. 700,000+ soliders died in this battle

Battle of Lorraine

August 14, 1914 - August 25, 1914

German victory. 50,000-100,000 dead

The Battle of Charleroi

August 21, 1914

The Battle of Charleroi, or the Battle of the Sambre, was fought on 21 August 1914, by the French Fifth Army and the German 2nd and 3rd armies, during the Battle of the Frontiers. 40,000 people died.

Battle of Mons

August 23, 1914

The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the First World War. It was a subsidiary action of the Battle of the Frontiers, in which the Allies clashed with Germany on the French borders. 10,000 people died.

First Battle of the Marne

5 September 1914 - 12 September 1914

an offensive during World War I by the French army and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) against the advancing Germans who had invaded Belgium and northeastern France and were within 30 miles (48 km) of Paris.

Battle of Marne

September 6, 1914 - September 12, 1914

The Battle of the Marne was a World War I battle fought from 6–10 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west. Roughly 500,000 soldiers died.

Steel helmets used in WW1

1915 - 1917

Lusitania sunk

May 7, 1915

On the afternoon of May 7, 1915, the British ocean liner Lusitania is torpedoed without warning by a German submarine off the south coast of Ireland. Within 20 minutes, the vessel sank into the Celtic Sea. Of 1,959 passengers and crew, 1,198 people were drowned, including 128 Americans

Kaiser William II stops unrestricted warfare

September 1, 1915 - February 1, 1917

the Lusitania was a British ship and it was carrying a supply of munitions—Germany used these two facts to justify the attack—it was principally a passenger ship, and the 1,201 people who drowned in its sinking included 128 Americans. The incident prompted U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to send a strongly worded note to the German government demanding an end to German attacks against unarmed merchant ships. By September 1915, the German government had imposed such strict constraints on the operation of the nation’s submarines that the German navy was persuaded to suspend U-boat warfare altogether.

Famine begins in Germany de to Blockade


Blamed on the jews.


1916 - 1922

art response to world war 1 and contains nonsense, dim view of society.

Battle of Verdun

February 21, 1916 - December 18, 1916

The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun, IPA: [bataj də vɛʁdœ̃], Schlacht um Verdun, IPA: [ʃlaxt ˀʊm ˈvɛɐdœŋ]), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Fortified Region of Verdun (RFV, Région Fortifiée de Verdun) and those of the French Second Army on the right bank of the Meuse. Inspired by the experience of the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915, the Germans planned to capture the Meuse Heights rapidly, because this was an excellent defensive position with good observation for the artillery to bombard Verdun. The Germans hoped that the French would commit their strategic reserve to recapture the position and suffer catastrophic losses in a battle of annihilation, not costly for the Germans because of their tactical advantage.

Battle of Somme

July 1, 1916 - November 18, 1916

The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire. It took place between 1 July and 18 November 1916 on both sides of the upper reaches of the River Somme in France. The battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies and was the largest battle of the First World War on the Western Front. More than three million men fought in this battle and one million men were wounded or killed, making it one of the bloodiest battles in human history.

Riots against war cause extreme propaganda in all countries


Russia struggles with death


Over 7.5 million people dead from famine and war.

February revolution

February 1917

The main events of the revolution took place in and near Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), the then-capital of Russia, where longstanding discontent with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 23 February Old Style (8 March New Style). Revolutionary activity lasted about eight days. It involved mass demonstrations and violent armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy. On 27 February O.S. (12 March N.S.) mutinous Russian Army forces sided with the revolutionaries. Three days later the Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, ending Romanov dynastic rule, and the Imperial Russia. A Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov replaced the Russian Council of Ministers

Nicholas II resigns as Tzar of Russia

March 15, 1917

March 15, 1917

USA enters WW1

April 6, 1917

Bolshevik revolution

November 1917

It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, brother of Tsar Nicolas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils (Russian: Soviet) wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs. This immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world's first self-proclaimed socialist state. On 17 July 1918, the Tsar and his family were executed.

Spanish flu pandemic

1918 - Approx. 1920

14 points

Jan 8, 1918

Wilson's plan for a postwar world. Land, rebuilding, lasting peace. Rejected because it is seen as too lenient by Europe.

Russia and Germany make peace

March 1918

Germany seizes millions of acres of land from Russia due to this peace treaty, millions of soldiers move from Russian front to western front. The capital of Russia is moved from Saint Petersburg to Moscow

Germany recognizes defeat

October 1918

Kaiser William II advocates the throne and flees Germany

November 9th, 1918

Allies ask for a cease fire from the Central Powers, Armistice

November 11, 1918

Third international

1919 - 1943

The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state". The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference in which Vladimir Lenin had organized the "Zimmerwald Left" against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action, and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International.

138+ million dead from combination of WW1 and Spanish flu


Paris peace conference

1919 - 1920

Reconstructs Europe, France and Great Britain want Germany to be punished, Italy wants land.

Irish independence declared

January 21, 1919

Irish home rule never happens, so irish fight english and they declare independence

Colonies begin rioting and want freedom from Europe

April 13, 1919

The British cause the Amirtsar Massacre, which killed 300+ people. This motivates other colonies to seek independence from their European rulers.

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly led to World War I. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties.[6] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

League of nations

January 10, 1920 - April 20, 1946

The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.[1] Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.[2] Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.[3] At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.


1922 - 1991

March on Rome


Mussolini is made prime minister of Italy after his march on Rome.

Germany begins printing money to repay the allies


Extreme inflation, beginning of Weimar Republic collapse.

Economies prospering worldwide

1923 - 1930

Lenin dies


Joseph stalin comes to power, condemns Lenin's will, begins stalinism, fills government with his supporters.

facism totaliarism takes its roots in Europe


Dawes plan

August 1924

The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an attempt in 1924 to solve the World War I reparations problem that Germany had to pay, which had bedevilled international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.

Lateran agreement


The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question". They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929. The Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929. It recognized Vatican City as an independent state, with the Italian government, at the time led by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, agreeing to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States. In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognized in the Constitution of Italy as regulating the relations between the State and the Catholic Church.

Young plan

February 1930

The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930.

Italy defeats and occupies Ethiopia


The Italian army, under the direction of dictator Benito Mussolini, invaded Ethiopian territory on October 2, 1935. One of the first actions done by the Italians was to proclaim the abolition of slavery for the 9 million slaves in all Ethiopia. They occupied the capital Addis Ababa on May 5. Emperor Haile Selassie pleaded to the League of Nations for aid in resisting the Italians. Nevertheless, the country was formally annexed on May 9, 1936 and the Emperor went into exile.


1982 - Present

Slovenia cecedes from serbia