Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation was a movement begun by Martin Luther and his famous text, The 95 Theses'. The rise of indulgences, in which the citizens give money to the church in exchange for all their sins to be forgiven, was the influence to this schism.

Scientific Revolution

1600 - 1700

A concept that described an era in which modern science transformed the views of society about nature. Several discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and more were made during this time.

The Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

The Enlightenment was the era of music and artistic renovation. It was heavily influenced by philosophy and was also called "The Age of Reason."

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

This was a period of extreme rapid growth in which technological advances soared the world. It was a time of manufacturing, mass production, and a lot of machines and factories.

The Ottoman Empire's Decline

1800 - 1914

The Ottomans were at an economic downfall and faced challenges defending itself from foreign invasions. During the last couple of years it was referred to as "The sick man of Europe."

The First Opium War

1839 - 1842

The Opium War was caused by the disputes of British trade in China and China's sovereignty. A drug named Opium began to spread through trading at this time and it was extremely addictive and dangerous.

The Treaty of Nanking was signed


The Treaty of Nanking was a peace treaty that ended the First Opium War. It allowed Britain to get a sufficient amount of territory in Hong Kong, helping them get extraterritoriality, and the Chinese owed them a lot of money.

Communist Manifesto Published


The Communist Manifesto was a document written by Karl Marx in which he discusses the political system of communism and its difference with capitalism. Unlike capitalism, communism lies on government instead of self interest and bans the rights to any owning of private property.

The Taiping Rebellion


The Taiping Rebellion was a rebellion between the Taiping and the Qing Dynasty. The Taiping goal was to "restore to China her past goodness."

The Crimean War

1853 - 1856

The Crimean War was a conflict between Russia and the alliance of The Ottoman Empire, Britain, France, and Sardinia. The Russians lost the battle, most likely because Britain and France were more technologically advanced.