The Enlightenment was started for different reasons such as, the Thirty Years’ War. Also, Europe was exposed to other cultures and philosophies and average citizens decided to speak out after being mistreated. Some effects of the war were that studies generally began in the fields of earth science and astronomy. Isaac Newton made breakthroughs in physics that have changed the world.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt in which the American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America. In April 1775 British soldiers, called lobsterbacks and minutemen—the colonists' militia—exchanged gunfire at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. It was known a "the shot heard round the world," it signaled the start of the American Revolution and led to the independence of the colonies.
It was caused by agricultural revolution, access to resources, and technological advances. The effects were both good and bad. For example, urbanization, pollution, and massive social changes.
The causes of the French revolution were political conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over tax system which led to bankruptcy, The Enlightenment, social antagonisms between two rising groups: the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie, Louis XVI being an ineffective ruler , Economic hardship, especially the agrarian crisis of 1788-89 food shortages caused discontent. Some effects were the abolition of the French monarchy, the establishment of a secular and democratic republic that became increasingly authoritarian and militaristic, radical social change based on liberalism and other Enlightenment principles, the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, and armed conflicts with other European countries.
Slaves ended French's control over the colony and ending slavery in Haiti by 1803. The Haitian Revolution had several revolutions going on simultaneously. These revolutions were influenced by the French Revolution of 1789, it would represent a new concept of human rights, universal citizenship, and participation in government. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, was a former slave and led the revolutionaries at the Battle of Vertieres on November 18, 1803 and French forces were defeated. On January 1, 1804, nation was independent and named Haiti.
The Napoleonic era, aka final stage of the French Revolution, begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état and ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo (9 November 1799 – 28 June 1815). Napoleon made peace with the Roman Catholic Church. In 1804 Napoleon's civil code helped stabilize French society. The Civil Code established a merit-based society. The Civil Code made women and children subservient to male heads of households. Napoleon wanted authority so his armies conquered the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, occupied lands, and he forced Austria, Prussia, and Russia to ally with him. The Napoleonic Wars continued the Wars of the French Revolution. Great Britain and France fought for European supremacy.
It was caused by Creoles and mestizos not wanting Spanish rule after enlightenment ideas spread to the Americas. Some effects were that ruling by caudillos occurred, upper classes supported the dictatorship, lower classes didn't have any experience with democracy, The monroe doctrine, now that trade was not restricted to the mother country, the US and Great Britain became two new countries major trading partners, Latin America mainly exported cash crops, large loans were taken out, the new government sized lands and sold them but creoles were the only ones could afford it.
The opium war was when China fought against the British. they were fighting because of the Qing emperor's dislike of the opium that Britain had wanted to trade. China ended up losing this war and was in debt from the money they put into the war. An effect was the Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing which was a peace treaty that ended the war. It was seen as an unequal treaty by the Qing.
The causes of war was that Catholic France and Orthodox Russia fought over control of access to religious sites in the Holy Land, the, rioting in Bethlehem, which was then part of the Ottoman empire ruled by Turkey, occurred. The Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. The peace of paris was then signed march 30th, 1856 and preserved ottoman rule until 1914.
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1857 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. Causes of the british raj were that before the British took control in India, The British East Indies company had several trading posts and was ruling India's economy. The Moghul Empire was taken over and The british empire looted, destroyed and invaded several kingdoms within India and last battle was in 1857, putting an end of 1000 years of Muslim rule in India.