Napoleon sent an army and defeated the Mamluk army.
Britain's navy and army defeated the French army.
Muhammad Ali rises to power and gets an army of Mamluks. Defeats British and forces them out of the area for 75 years. Brought sweeping reforms, military success, and he is regarded as the founder.
British troops seize control of Egypt.
Egypt is declared a republic and Muhammad Najib becomes the president.
British troops finally leave Egypt.