Friedrich Miescher Discovers a "nuclien" in the nucleus in white blood cells. We now know this "nuclien" as DNA.
Oswald Avery discovers that DNA defines who we are.
Rosalind Franklin photographs crystalized DNA fibres. She used X-ray diffraction techniques to make the DNA visible.
They used X-ray data and model building to discover this.
Following the Discovery of the structure of DNA, there was a big race to see who could the first person to decipher the genetic code. George Gamow made the race more interesting by setting up a special club called the "RNA Tie Club" to see if they could all discover it together. He invited twenty different members and ironically, Marshall Nirenberg (The man who ended up discovering the genetic code first) was not a member.
Marshal Nirenberg was awarded the nobel prize because of his discovery's.
In 1988, The National Research Council recommended a program to map the human genome.
The world famous Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell.
In 1999, an international team of researchers reached a major milestone when they unravelled for the first time the full genetic code of a human chromosome.
In 2003 the Human Genome Project was finally completed.