The History of DNA


Friedrich Miescher identifies "nuclein"


Friedrich Miescher Discovers a "nuclien" in the nucleus in white blood cells. We now know this "nuclien" as DNA.

Oswald Avery identifies DNA as the 'transforming principle'


Oswald Avery discovers that DNA defines who we are.

Rosalind Franklin photographs crystallized DNA fibres


Rosalind Franklin photographs crystalized DNA fibres. She used X-ray diffraction techniques to make the DNA visible.

James Watson and Francis Crick discover the double helix structure of DNA


They used X-ray data and model building to discover this.

George Gamow and the “RNA Tie Club”


Following the Discovery of the structure of DNA, there was a big race to see who could the first person to decipher the genetic code. George Gamow made the race more interesting by setting up a special club called the "RNA Tie Club" to see if they could all discover it together. He invited twenty different members and ironically, Marshall Nirenberg (The man who ended up discovering the genetic code first) was not a member.

Marshall Nirenberg discovers the Genetic Code


Marshal Nirenberg was awarded the nobel prize because of his discovery's.

he Human Genome Project begins


In 1988, The National Research Council recommended a program to map the human genome.

Dolly the sheep is cloned


The world famous Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell.

First human chromosome is decoded


In 1999, an international team of researchers reached a major milestone when they unravelled for the first time the full genetic code of a human chromosome.

The Human Genome Project is completed


In 2003 the Human Genome Project was finally completed.