Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution. After seizing political power in France in a 1799 coup d'état, he crowned himself emperor in 1804.
The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate).
the members of the French Estates-General for the Third Estate, who had begun to call themselves the National Assembly, took the Tennis Court Oath,
The medieval fortress, armory, and political prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris.
a label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Napoleon surrendered and gave up the French throne, ending his reign.
the Congress of Vienna was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich