fiona lock

Events

Stalin

1922 - 1953

Disliked the west - against him in Russian Civil War, appeased H in 1930s (set to destroy com), ideologies, slow to open 2nd front, total war death USSR = 25 mill, US = 400k

Roosevelt

March 1933 - April 1945

Tehran Conference

November 1943 - December 1943

Significance = proved a good working relationship between the superpowers could be maintained (Poland+R), hopes for peaceful future (UN), both sides satisfied (common enemy H, 2nd front), Balkans rejected

Greek Civil War

1944 - 1949

4000 troops and money given to Greek (+Turkish) royalists to contain communism - GB couldn't afford this post war so asked US

Truman

1945 - 1953

Yalta Conference

4 February 1945 - 11 February 1945

Significance = relationship failing (S dominates, Poland), future strain (Germany), still some agreement (Germany+UN)

Red army intervened in Romania

March 1945

Potsdam Conference

July 1945 - August 1945

US Atomic Bomb Is Tested

July 16, 1945

Power of 12500 tons of TNT, Significance = fear+mistrust fuelled the arms race, Truman anti-soviet get tough, different leaders not united, no longer GA

Victory for SP in Hungary

November 1945

over 50% but economic decline quickly led to the election of a communist party

Long Telegram

22 February 1946

Kennan US diplomat in Moscow asks US for firm action, says that USSR are aggressive and suspicious and feared Soviet expansion, pressure on leaders to fight, first public break, Tru more aggressive+people preped

Iron Curtain Speech by Churchill

5 March 1946

Pressure to fight, public break, US prepared for T toughness,

Novikov Telegram

27 September 1946

Novikov USSR diplomat in Washington talks factually about US expanding army and navy - prep for war

Coal Shortages in UK

1947

Polish Elections Rigged

January 1947

sphere of influence, divide, mistrust-stand up to com, USSR seen as agressor

Truman Doctrine

12 March 1947

Importance - Break from war-time co-operation, Greek government able to defeat the communists, commited to Europe, containment, MP, divide,

Marshall Plan

June 1947

Significance = successfully rebuilds much of Western Europe, declaration of war on the Soviet Union and Communism (T strengthened), US committed against Communism, affairs outside borders, protector,

Cominform

October 1947

Bizonia

January 1948

US and GB zones in Berlin and Germany merge into one economic unit cooling it bizonia which was threatening and then quickly 3 vs 1as France joins = trizonia, outnumbered

Soviet reps walk out of Allied Control Commission

March 1948

Allied zone included in the Marshall Plan

April 1948

Plan for Western German State and Deutschmark

June 1948

Berlin Blockade

22 June 1948

only 3% took up S offer

Berlin Airlift

24 June 1948 - 12 May 1949

275000 flights, 4000 tons of supplies a day, Significance = First physical conflict between the sides (101 air personnel died), Warsaw Pact, NATO, Propaganda

Rakosi 5 Year Plan

1949 - 1954

Comecon

January 5, 1949

NATO

4 April 1949

USSR 1st Atomic Bomb

August 1949

Significance = balance of terror, economic decline, military threat

US first H2 Bomb

November 1952

US $49.6 billion, USSR $25.5 billion

1953

Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

US B-52, USSR TU-20 Bear

1955

Khrushchev

1955 - 1964

Kicked out under pressure from Mao Zedong but he sees missile crisis as success as Cuba saved from invasion

Warsaw Pact

14 May 1955

challenge, responsible to defense - financially bad, threat and heighten, balance of terror

Khrushchev's Secret Speech

February 1956

Polish Uprising

June 1956

Gomulka

Hungarian Uprising

23 October 1956 - November 9, 1956

People in the West were horrified (GB communists leave, containing), Kh position more secure (WP), hopes based on Secret Speech dashed

US increase spending on missiles by 20%

1957 - 1959

Eisenhower founds NASA

Novotny Becomes Czech Leader

1957

Sputnik

October 4, 1957

Significance = military threat (orbits earth in 1.5 hours), USSR publically , increased spending

Khrushchev's Ultimatum

November 1958

summit meetings, building of BW

Castro

1 January 1959 - 1970

tension-no sugar, cut ties, USSR+Cuba stronger

Geneva Summit

May 1959

Camp David Summit

September 1959

China and USSR Fall Out

1960

U2 Spy Plane shot down

1 May 1960

relations built up over summits destroyed, ended paris

Paris Summit

14 May 1960

Berlin Immigration only 5,000

1961 - 1989

Kennedy Reiterates TD

January 1961

Immigration 20,000 per month

1961

Kennedy

1961 - 1963

Bay of Pigs

17 April 1961

Importance = Castro closer to USSR, US seen as an imperialist nation by developing countries, Kennedy more likely to be cautious - humiliation

Vienna Summit

June 1961

Berlin Wall Built

13 August 1961

Significance = area of instability calmed (no more brain drain/20,000 year immigration), propaganda (1963 speech), clear divide (prior 1/2 mill cross every day to experience tinned fruit, discos...)

National Czech Income Falls

1962 - 1963

43,000 servicemen, 100s tanks, 12 IRBM, 40 MRBM

July 1962 - October 1962

Installation of BM into Cuba

September 1962

range of 3500km - able to hit WDC+NY, 145km from US mainland

Cuban Missile Crisis

14 October 1962 - 28 October 1962

Importance = relax in tensions, change of USSR leadership, closest ever come to WW3

Naval Blockade

22 October 1962

stretching 3,300km around Cuba

18 Soviet Ships Turn Around

24 October 1962

resolution

28 October 1962

US sold grain to USSR

1963

Kennedy visits WB

1963

Ich bin ein Berliner speech to crowds of 200,000 and cheering on both sides

Hotline

June 1963

Partial Test Ban Treaty

August 1963

Brezhnev

October 1964 - November 1982

Novotny's New Economic Model Introduced

1965

France withdrew from NATO

1966

Outer Space Treaty

1967

Brezhnev visits and sees opposition to Novotny

December 1967

Dubcek appointed leader of Czechoslovakia

January 1968

Albania leaves WP/Yugoslavian and Romanian communists formed alliances with China

1968

Height of Vietnam War/Presidential Election

1968

Prague Spring

January 5, 1968 - August 21, 1968

communism under public scrutiny, sparked concern in Eastern Bloc leaders

Uncensored discussions, grilling politicians, SD party, newspapers

March 1968 - June 1968

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

July 1968

Bilak + 5 “all means” letter

August 1968

USSR Invade Czechoslovakia

20 August 1968

72 killed, 200,000 troops (B, H, P), 100s of tanks, Significance = USSR will not contemplate WP leavers, USSR willing to use force, worsened relations

Brezhev Doctrine

August 21, 1968

lost grip on wider soviet sphere, Moscow tighter grip on WP

Nixon

January 1969 - August 1974

Jan Palach Sets Himself on Fire

January 1969

Dubcek replaced by Gustav Husak

April 1969

SALT 1

27 May 1972

Significant = first talks towards reduction(limited strategic missile defenses to 200 interceptors), appearances sake (no restrictions on strategic bombers), slowed the arms race, further negotiations

Yom Kippur War

October 6, 1973 - October 25, 1973

Nixon visits Moscow

July 1974

both powers weakened - US compromising, USSR begging for food, nuclear weapons discussed

Space Meetup

17 July 1975

Helsinki Agreement

1 August 1975

Significance = highest point of detente(WG resolved), Europe taking charge, Human Rights foreshadow, closer ties

Carter

1977 - 1981

Carter send a letter to the Soviets concerning Human Rights

1977

Carter Asks For Increase in Defence Budget

1978

PDPA overthrow the government of Afghanistan.

27 April 1978

taraki president, torture, ally of USSR

SALT 2

June 1979

Taraki murdered and replaced by Amin

September 1979

NATO decided to place long-range missiles in Europe

December 1979

Afghanistan Invaded

25 December 1979 - 1 January 1980

US aid, ended detente, Reagan, Carter opp for showing control,

Amin was shot and replaced by Babrak Kamal

27th of December 1979

Carter Doctrine

January 1980

Importance = no longer peaceful co-existence (more weapons+tension), crippled USSR economy (take advantage later+B unpopular) , boycotting of Olympics (influence)

70% of industrial output of USSR going to military.

1980 - 1989

Boycotting of Moscow Olympics

July 1980 - August 1980

Over 60 nations with US, showed US influence, led to further boycotts (1984 LA), stopped USSR promoting communism, tension

Reagan's Defense Policy

1981 - 1987

Reagan

1981 - 1989

Reagan proposed zero option

November 1981

START Talks

1982

Reagan called the Soviet Union an evil Empire

June 1982

tensions rose, US more secure

Reagan announces Star Wars

23 March 1983

Andropov accuses US of preparing a First Strike attack

27th March 1983

Gorbachev

March 1985 - 1991

better relations between cap and com, more freedom for EE, collapse of BW

Geneva Summit Conference

November 1985

Reykjavik Summit Conference

October 1986

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

December 1987

superpower destroy weapons, verification inspection -trust, genuine relationship - NPP

Non Communist Party Elected in Poland

1989

Hungary opens its borders with Austria

May 1989

1 million people in EBerlin protest for democracy and free elections.

4 November 1989

Berlin Wall Falls

9 November 1989

people reunite, symbolic politically, division gone

G wins Nobel Peace Prize/Baltic States Declare Themselves Independant

1990

START I Treaty for the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Arms

1991

New Germany join NATO/Warsaw Pact Dissolved

1991

Coup to Remove G from power

August 1991

Dissolution of USSR/G Resigns

25th December 1991