Pre-Nicea

Pre-Nicene ExtraChurch History

Jesus

0 CE - 33 CE

Josephus, Jewish Scholar

37 ad - 100

About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man. For he ... wrought surprising feats.... He was the Christ. When Pilate ...condemned him to be crucified, those who had . . . come to love him did not give up their affection for him. On the third day he appeared ... restored to life.... And the tribe of Christians ... has ... not disappeared.

Tacitus, Roman Historian

56 ad - 117 ad

"Nero fastened the guilt ... on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of ... Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome...."

Pliny the Younger, Roman Governor in Asia Minor

61 AD - 112 AD

They were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food – but food of an ordinary and innocent kind.

Babylonian Talmud, Jewish Rabbinical Writing

70 ad - 200

On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald ... cried, "He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy."

Lucian of Samosata, Greek Satirist

125 - 180

The Christians ... worship a man to this day – the distinguished personage who introduced their novel rites, and was crucified on that account.... [It] was impressed on them by their original lawgiver that they are all brothers, from the moment that they are converted, and deny the gods of Greece, and worship the crucified sage, and live after his laws.

Pre-nicene Historical Sources

Jesus

0 CE - 33 CE

A Protestant-ish Church Simply Doesn't "Evolve" into a Catholic-ish Church Peacefully

33 AD - 339 AD

The old orthodox were martyred because they didn't want to change the way they held their fingers when crossing themselves.
The protestant reformation was anything but peaceful.
The gates of hell will not prevail against the church?

Time of the Apostles (Eye Witnesses)

33 AD - 100 AD

The Apostles approved teachers and overseers in their place. And those that were approved, approved of other teachers and overseers in their place.

Ignatius of Antioch

35 AD - 108 AD

Documents Uniformity of Church Structure
Onesimus, bishop of Ephesians
Damus, bishop of Magnesians
Polybius, bishop of Tralians
Romans, calls himself Bishop of Syria
Peter and Paul were in Rome
Be at one with your bishop
Follow your bishop
Letter to Polycarp

Didache

80 C.E. - 110 C.E.

1 Clement - Letter from Man, Given Authority by Peter, to Corinth Church

96 AD

Epistle of Barnabas

100

Justin Martyr - provides portrayal of church services

100 AD - 165 AD

Defends church against accusations of having canibalistic feasts at night
Portrays Eucharist
Portrays Baptismal Services

St. Hegesippus - Chronicler of Underground Church Quoted by Eusebius

110 - 180

Chronicler of the early church
Palestinian Christian
Wrote book Hypomnemata
Quoted by Historian Eusebius

Irenaeus - cites succession of bishops within Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria

130 - 202

Lists of bishops demonstrates true Christian authority to declare Christian truth in the fight against the Gnostic heretics. LOGIC: If your teaching is true show us where your teaching authority originated. You should be able to trace it back to the apostles unless it is a false teaching. You should at least be able to trace it back to somewhere in the early church. The church speaks throughout the whole world as if she had a single mouth...why do the gnostics speak differently?

Shepherd of Hermas

140 AD

Tertullian - cited succession of bishops

160 - 225

Let these heretics produce the original records of their churches. Show us where your teachers link back to the apostles. Polycarp placed in authority by John, Clement placed in authority by Peter.

Hippolytus of Rome - compiled apostolic traditions across churches

170 - 235

Documented
1) How prayers should be ended
2) How to baptize
3) Offices in the church

Dura-Europos House Church

Approx. 233 - Approx. 256

House church. Several walls still standing, oldest images of Jesus discovered within the surviving frescoes of the large baptistry room. Fragments of parchment scrolls with Hebrew texts unearthed containing Christian Eucharistic prayers closely connected with the prayers in the Didache.

Meggido House Church in Israel

Approx. 250 - Approx. 299

Ruins discovered on prison grounds in 2005, possibly oldest building constructed as a church ever discovered. It retains mosaic floor decoration with Christian motifs – possibly the oldest building with this feature.

Hymn to Theotokos (part of Coptic Liturgy)

Approx. 250 - Approx. 280

Eusebius of Caesaria - HISTORIAN

275 - 339

Wrote history from apostolic times to his own day
Quotes Hegesippus

Rotunda of St George Church in Greece

306

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

335 AD

Liturgy of St James

380 - 420

Events

Virgin Mary

18 BC - 41 AD

Jesus

0 AD - 33 AD

Andrew

5 AD - 75 AD

Barnabas

5 AD - 73 AD

Bartholomew

5 AD - 75 AD

James the Just

5 AD - 62 AD

John

5 AD - 100 AD

Jude

5 AD - 72 AD

Luke

5 AD - 65 AD

Mark

5 AD - 68 AD

Matthew

5 AD - 60 AD

Matthias

5 AD - 63 AD

Paul

5 AD - 64 AD

Peter, Martyred by Nero

5 AD - 67 AD

Phillip

5 AD - 54 AD

Simon

5 AD - 74 AD

James, Son of Thunder, martyred by Herod

5 AD - 44 AD

Martyred by Herod Acts 10

Thomas - India

5 AD - 72 AD

Christians met in Synagogues (liturgical)

33 AD - 70 AD

Last Supper

33 AD

Jesus' Resurrection

33 AD

NT Letters Written

35 AD - 95 AD

Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, Martyred by Trajan

35 AD - 108 AD

Stachys

38 AD - 54 AD

Phillip Evangelizes Samaritans

Approx. 38 AD

Baptized into Christ but had not yet received the Holy Spirit. Phillip wasn't an apostle, but a deacon. Peter and John came and the Samaritans received the Holy Spirit at this time.

Peter baptizes first Gentile "God-Follower"

42 AD

Acts10 - Cornelius in Ceasarea "God Fearer". Worshipped Jewish God but uncircumcised. Peter baptized him and then justfied his action to the church in Jerusalem. Received the Holy Spirit and were baptized in to Christ as a result.

Gentile and Jews in Antioch become Christians

Approx. 45 AD

Barnabas went from Jerusalem when he heard there were believers in Antioch. Then Barnabas went to Tarsus to get Paul and returned to Antioch

Didache - Kind of Describes liturgy

50 AD - 120
  1. Fast Wed and Fri
  2. Pray the Lord's Prayer 3x a day
  3. Eucharist - Only to baptized believers
  4. Gather on Sunday

Evodius

53 AD - 69 AD

Onesimus

54 AD - 68 AD

Papias, Bishop of Hieropolis

60 AD - 130 AD

Emperor Nero Persecution (Rome)

64 AD - 68 AD

Linus

67 AD - 76 AD

Anianus

68 AD - 85 AD

Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, Martyred by ?

69 AD - 156 AD

Polycarpus I

69 AD - 89 AD

Temple Destroyed - no more sacrificial system, no more priestly system

70 ad

"House Churches"

70 AD - 313

Not like sitting around in your living room. They were houses converted into churches

Epistle of Barnabas, Unknown Author

70 AD - 130 AD

Ignatius

70 AD - 107 AD

Anacletus

76 AD - 88 AD

Didache, Unknown Author

80 AD - 120 AD

Aristedes the Philosopher, Martyred by ?

84 AD - 134 AD

Marcion (gnostic-ish heretic) - Grace vs Law; made his own bible - Luke + Paul Letters

85 AD - 160

Avilius

85 AD - 98 AD

Clement I, Martyred by Trajan

88 AD - 99 AD

Emperor Domitian Persecution (Rome)

89 AD - 96 AD

Plutarch

89 AD - 105 AD

Emperor Trajan Persecution (Turkey)

98 AD - 117

Kedron

98 AD - 109

Evaristus, Martyred by Trajan

99 AD - 107

Cerinthus (gnostic heretic)

100 AD - 170 AD

Justin Martyr

100 - 165

Sedecion

105 AD - 114 AD

Alexander I

107 - 115

Heron

107 - 127

Primus

109 - 121

Ignatius - Eucharist Teaching

110

Diogenes

114 - 129

Sixtus I

115 - 125

Taitian

120 - 180

Didache - Sunday Worship

120

Justus

121 - 131

Telesphores

125 - 136

Cornelius

127 - 154

Eleutherrius

129 - 136

Irenaeus

130 - 202

Shepherd of Hermas, Unknown Author

130 AD

Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons

131 - 202

Eumenes

131 - 142

Athenegoras

133 - 190

Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch

135 - 185

Felix

136 - 141

Hyginus

136 - 140

Gnostic Heresy Popular

140 - 350

Soul is good; Body is Bad; Special knowledge is key

Pius I

140 - 155

Second Clement, Unknown Author

140 AD

Polycarpus II

141 - 144

Markianos

142 - 152

Athenodorus

144 - 148

Euzois

148 - 154

Clement of Alexandria

150 AD - 215 AD

Mathetes to Diognetus, Unknown Author

150 AD

Celadion

152 - 167

Eros

154 - 169

Laurence

154 - 166

Anicetus

155 - 166

Polycarp visited to discuss date of Easter

Justin Martyr - Eucharist Teaching

155

Justin Martyr - Sunday Worship

155

Tertullian

155 - 222

Justin Martyr - Describes liturgy

155
  1. Gather Together
  2. Reading of scripture
  3. Homily
  4. Pray for Self and Others (found righteous by actions to attain salvation)
  5. Kiss of Peace
  6. Prayer of Thanksgiving
  7. Amen
  8. Eucharist

Montanism Heresy (Constantinople)

157 - 177

Early Pentacostalism

Julias Africanus

160 - 240

Emperor Marcus Aurelius Persecution (Turkey, Syria, Israel)

161 - 180

Alypius

166 - 169

Soter

166 - 174

Agrippinus

167 - 178

Pertinax

169 - 187

Muratorian Canon - Included most of today's NT list

170

Hippolytus

170 - 235

Eleuterus

174 - 189

Julian

178 - 189

NT Canon pretty well figured out

180 AD

Irenaeus - Eucharist Teaching

180

Maximus I

182 - 191

Origen

184 - 253

Olympianus

187 - 198

Demetrius I

189 - 232

Victor I

189 - 199

Seballian/Modalist Heresy - Jesus is the Father

190 - 262

Jesus is an expression of God, he is the Father as well and the Father is Jesus

Serapion

191 - 211

Mark I

198 - 211

Zephyrinus

199 - 217

Minucius Felix

200 - 250

Novation, Martyred by Valerian

200 - 258

Emperor Septimius Severus Persecution (Empire Wide)

202 - 211

Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, Martyred by Valerian

210 - 258

Asclepiades

211 - 220

Philadelphus

211 - 217

Gregory Thaumaturgus

213 - 270

Callixtus I

217 - 222

Cyriacus I

217 - 230

Dionysius, Bishop of Rome

218 - 268

Philetus

220 - 231

Urban I

222 - 230

Castinus

230 - 237

Pontian

230 - 235

Zebinnus

231 - 237

Heraclas

232 - 248

Anterus

235 - 236

Emperor Maximus (Empire Wide)

235 - 238

Fabien, Martyred by Decius

236 - 250

Babylas

237 - 250

Eugenius I

237 - 242

Titus

242 - 272

Emperor Decius Persecution (Empire Wide)

249 AD - 251 AD

Alexander of Alexandria

250 - 326

Hymn to Theotokos (part of Coptic Liturgy)

Approx. 250 - Approx. 280

Beneath Thy Protection (Greek: Ὑπὸ τὴν σὴν εὐσπλαγχνίαν; Latin: Sub tuum præsidium) is the oldest preserved extant hymn to the Blessed Virgin Mary as Theotokos.

Lactantius

250 - 325

Cornelius

251 - 253

Theodotus, Martyred by Diocletian

253 - 303

Fabius

253 - 256

Lucius I

253 - 254

Stephen I, Martyred by Valerian

254 - 257

Victorinus, Martyred by Diocletian

254 - 304

Demetrius

256 - 260

Emperor Valerian Persecution

257 - 259

Sixtus II, Martyred by Valerian

257 - 258

Pamphilus, Martyred by Diocletian

259 - 309

Paul

260 - 268

Methodius, Martyred by Diocletian

261 - 311

Peter of Alexandria, Martyred by Diocletian

261 - 311

Maximus

264 - 282

Domnus

268 - 273

Felix I

269 - 274

Dometius

272 - 284

Timaeus

273 - 283

Eutychian

275 - 283

Theonas

282 - 300

Caius

283 - 296

Cyril I

283 - 304

Rufinus I

284 - 293

Probus

293 - 306

Marcellinus, may have apostasized under Diocletian

296 - 304

Peter I

300 - 312

Emperor Diocletian Persecution

303 - 313

Marcellus I

308 - 309

Eusebius

309

Edict of Milan - Christianity legalized

313

Council of Nicea

325