Henry VIII took throne after his brother's unexpected death in 1502. But it wasn't until seven years later in 1509 when he acceded to the throne. Prior to his brother's death and to his heir he married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon. In the midst of his reign he published a book defending Catholic teaching against Martin Luther's actions. He then beheaded his then wife because she did not give him a son. After he beheaded his first wife, he then proceeded to Anne Boleyn. King Henry VIII was then announced as the head of the Church of England. Thereafter he followed the suppression of Catholic monasteries throughout Europe. A few years later Anne Boleyn was executed on the grounds of marital infidelity. Yet again Henry remarried this time to Jane Seymour. She died after giving birth to the kings only son. Once she died he went on to marry his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. With this marriage he hoped to attach German Protestant interests to those of England. This marriage only lasted six months. Henry then married two more times, first with Katherine Howard who was executed for marital infidelity. Second with his last wife Katherine Parr, to which she outlived Henry VIII. Henry died in 1547 and he was succeeded by his son, Edward VI.
Only child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, succeeded he throne after Edward VI became mortally ill. Edward VI, only son of Henry VIII, attempted to remove her from the line of succession because he opposed her Catholicism. Mary I married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in in 1556. During her five year reign she murdered over 200 religious dissenters by burning them alive.
Galileo was a major influence, scientist, and central figure in the Scientific Revolution. Galileo believed in heliocentrism which opposed geocentrism. He spent most of his life under house arrest by suspicion of heresy because of his beliefs. He made long-lasting impressions on the study of physics. He earned the name "Father of Modern Science." He developed a telescope and studied astronomy, thus exploring the universe.
Oliver Cromwell led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War. He led them to victory therefore, causing the execution of Charles I and the abolishment of the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the Anglican Church. Oliver Cromwell also ran a military dictatorship which brutally conquered Catholic countries that includes Scotland and Ireland. He even introduced Puritan prohibitions against drunkenness, theatre going, and dancing. After Cromwell died, the people were ready to reestablish the monarchy and the Anglican church.
On the death of his older brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Whales, Charles I became heir of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Charles I believed in the Divine Rights of Kings, to which he governed according to his principles. Causing many individuals to oppose his actions. Those particular actions include the levying of taxes without parliament consent. Making him out to be a ruler under the absolute monarch.
Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, and physicist. He was described as a "natural philosopher" and was a key influencer and figure during the scientific revolution. Newton formed laws of physics like the laws of motion and the universal gravitation that dominated the view of the physical universe. Newton had a theoretical prediction that the earth is an oblate spheroid. He even removed the doubts of the heliocentric model of the Solar System and demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be accounted by the same principles.
English landowners had exclusive legal right to hunt game. The upheld superior status of aristocracy over peasants and they landed gentry over commercial classes. The gentry hired the gamekeepers to guard against poachers. The poachers killed deer by unauthorized persons. Thus eventually becoming a capital crime. In 1831 the laws were rewritten to permit landowners to allow others to hunt game.
Born in 1672, Peter was tsar of Russia. He centralized government, modernized the army, created a navy, and increased subjection of the peasants. Overall he modernized Russia. His domestic policy allowed him to execute an aggressive foreign policy. He faced opposition and brutally suppressed rebellions against his authority. Peter the Great ruled until his death in 1725.
Adam Smith wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). Which is one of the most famous work during the Enlightenment. This piece of literature debated that the best way to create economic growth is for individuals to pursue their own selfish self-interests. Adam Smith is also the founder of laissez-faire. He also had a four stage theory; hunting and gathering, pastoral or herding, agriculture, and commercial. Those stages were based off of the human societies, Adam just simply classified them into four stages.
This was the new constitution drafted on August 27, 1789. Believed to be similar to the Declaration of Independence by proclaiming liberty, freedom, and natural rights. Provided two very powerful ideas that was portrayed for citizens. These two ideas were civil equality and popular sovereignty. Although it was portrayed for citizens women were not included in this declaration.