European History

Intellectual Revolution

Scientific Revolution

1400 - 1700
  • Spurred on by Renaissance Greek and Roman thought, encouraging literacy
  • Materialistic: all things are made of matter and nothing from a spiritual source
  • Mathematical: things need to be quantitative to be scientific
  • Importance: moving away from religion, fact, connections, technology, patronage system, SECULARISM

Nicholas Copernicus

1473 - 1543
  • First figure of the Scientific Revolution
  • Discovered heliocentric universe without a telescope
  • Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

Andreas Vesalius

1514 - 1564
  • Belgian Anatomist
  • First anatomical figure of the human body (On the Fabric of the Human Body)
  • Didn't have a microscope so only had drawings

Michel de Montaigne

1533 - 1592
  • Argued for religious toleration and trying to stop intolerance -> hates dogmatism
  • Skeptical about everything (cannot know if he can know if God exists)

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601
  • Discovered the nova
  • Best plan of the night sky and affirms heliocentric theory

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626
  • Champion of Science: bringing science out of the darkness
  • Pragmatism (truth is what works), empiricism (separating science and magic), inductive reason (start with particulars and move into the general)


1564 - 1642
  • Astronomer and Physicist
  • Telescope 1609: improved design of the telescope and found evidence that the universe wasn't perfect
  • Proved Heliocentric Universe
  • Discovered inertia and ballistics
  • Dialogue Between the Two Great Systems of the World 1633

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630
  • Studied under Tycho Brahe
  • Believed that the spheres were real until proved they definitely couldn't

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679
  • Strong Authoritarian Ruler or Monarchy because people cannot govern themselves
  • Levaithan: argues that governments are important because life is nasty, brutish, and short; social contract
  • Secularism and materialism

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650
  • Mathematician
  • Analytic and coordinate geometry, rationalism (sensory perception only grounds for truth), his mind is all that exists
  • Cartesian Dualism: mind and matter both exist
  • Mechanistic Universe

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662
  • Pascal triangle, pascals law, conic sections
  • Spiritualism and the Night of Fire: vision where had an encounter with God and moved to defending Christianity

Robert Boyle

1627 - 1691
  • First modern skeptical chemist
  • Boyle's Laws about barometric pressure
  • Rejects the ideas of four elements and three principles

William Harvey

  • British Anatomist
  • Blood circulates through the body

John Locke

1632 - 1704
  • Government makes state of life better
  • Social contract, tabula rasa, deism
  • Classical Liberalism: right of revolution, natural and inalienable rights, all people created equal, constitutionalism
  • Two Treatises of Civil Government: separation of powers
  • Letter Concerning Toleration: though it was ok to have a state religion, intolerance is not only cruel but illogical

Elector Frederick William IV

1640 - 1688
  • Absolutist tradition, toleration, MILITARY, widespread literacy, well run bureaucracy, ruler followers
  • Could elect the Holy Roman Emperor
  • Allowed people to have sefdom if junkers served them in the army

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727
  • Astronomer and Physicist
  • Synthesizes Kepler and Galileo
  • Gravity, light, and calculus
  • Dabbled in magic
  • Member of the Royal Society 1662 shows that Science is being accepted

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

  • Biologist
  • Discovered bacteria and protozoa through teeth and blood (didn't figure out it was linked to disease)


1689 - 1755

-Persian Letters: 1721 Persians writing to their friends in Iran (cultural relativism, critique of French society, available to the public)
- Spirit of Laws: 1748 separation of powers expanding on Locke, government needs to adjust to the society, judicial reform about torture and capital punishment


1694 - 1778
  • Philosophe
  • Britain is better than France because merit of accomplishment and political liberty
  • Enlightened monarch because people cannot control themselves
  • Religious skepticism

King Frederick I

1701 - 1713
  • Allowed to rule if he brought in his army
  • Didn't rule over all of Prussia

Jean Jaques Rousseau

1712 - 1778
  • Swiss anti-Enlightenment thinker
  • Noble Savage: people who live primitive life have it better
  • Man is fundamentally good but technology and society are corrupting them
  • Emile: theory of child development (clothes, needs, corporal punishment)
  • Confessions: explaining his own problems -> start of psychology
  • Social Contract: government should represent the "general will"
  • Anticipates Romanticism

Treaty of Utrect

  • Netherlands
  • Ended the War of Spanish Succession
  • France forced out of Spanish Netherlands and Italy

Denis Diderot

1713 - 1784
  • Philosophe
  • Encyclopedia: bible of the enlightenment that is leaning heavily towards the Enlightenment
  • Anyone who can read has the right to be educated

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790
  • Scottish Economist
  • Wealth of Nations: attacked idea of mercantilism for free trade, sophisticated banking system, all countries produce what they make best and sell it without restrictions, let people go off of their own self interests
  • Laissez Faire Capitalism: free market, invisible hand governs economy
  • Based on the worst side of human nature

Immanuel Kant

1724 - 1804
  • German AKA Prussian Philosopher
  • Skepticism by dropping prejudices and defying authority

Cesare Beccaria

1738 - 1794
  • Italian Law Influencer
  • Crimes and Punishments: laws need to be codified so people can't be discriminated against, abolishing torture, no death penaltiy, treatments for the mentally ill

Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786
  • Hohenzollern Ruler of Prussia
  • Uses Prussia's military to expand Prussia's land claims
  • Reforms: justice system (capital punishment, honest judgment), education (universal literacy), religious toleration
  • Gains Silesia from Maria Teresa of Austria

Maria Teresa

1740 - 1780
  • Archduchess of Austria
  • Fought against Prussia for Silesia but couldn't do it
  • Believed in censorship and Catholics were superior
  • Reforms: limited serfdom to two days a week, centralized government, mother of the country

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796
  • Early Life: daughter of German family who married Peter III and staged a coup against him
  • Successes: education for women and nobility, eliminated torture, religious toleration, rationalizing the state, rights to the nobility
  • Land Gains: Poland, Georgia, Finland, Ukraine
  • Failures: capital punishment still alive, couldn't get Greece, didn't end serfdom
  • Pugachev's Rebellion: Cossack tried to overthrow Catherine and made her turn against any reform and gave the nobles more power

Joseph II

1765 - 1790
  • Reforms: abolished serfdom but made them pay, edict of toleration (all subjects same under law), all spoke German, equality before the law, common education out of Catholic Church
  • Failure: most reforms stopped after his death -> one good leader won't change society

French and Industrial Revolutions

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792
  • Marie Antoinette
  • Tried to reform taxes but didn't work, really didn't help the debt brother, and brought together the Estates General
  • Killed by the National Assembly

Declaration of Man and Citizen

  • Basic Rights: expression, press, equality before the law -> 18th-century liberalism
  • Popular Sovereignty: king a creature of the people
  • Religious imagery, freemasonry

Estates General

  • Plagued by indecision so the third estate breaks away and becomes National Assembly
  • Locked out of Versailles conference room so has the meeting of the Tennis court

Tennis Court Meeting

June 1789
  • Meeting to discuss breaking away from the National Assembly

National Gaurd

June 1789
  • Want to create their own army to fight against the King's national guard
  • Decide to get their own weapons

Storming of the Bastille

July 1789
  • Bastille: former prison and royal tower as a symbol of royal authority
  • Break in gates, people fire on the resistors -> king negotiates they can have the weapons
  • First bloody sign of the revolution

Abolish Privilege

August 1789
  • Abolish obligatory tithes, taxation of peasants and taxes nobles, eminent property, hunting rights, noblesse oblige
  • Abolish all three estates

The Great Fear

August 1789
  • Peasant revolt after the Bastille
  • Go to the house of feudal lords to fight about land claims
  • Freaks out National Assembly

Women's Bread March

October 1789
  • Women storm Versailles because of high bread prices to change the mind of the National Assembly
  • Shows women's involvement and is a turning point towards rationalism

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • Dissolving different convents and religious places of worship unless they provided education and pledged allegiance to the revolution
  • Clergy elected by the people
  • Creates anticlericalism
  • Liberty becomes the enemy of the Catholic Church

Declaration of Pillnitz

  • Frederick William II
  • Makes a statement that if the ruler is not restored they will intervene to the conservatives
  • Bluff, make emigres go back to France, stop the Revolutions

Flight to Varennes

June 20, 1791
  • Louis and his family dress like commoners to escape Paris to the Netherlands
  • Caught by the national assembly and held hostage as prisoners

Dissolution of the Monarchy

  • Legislative Assembly -> National Convention and chooses to dissolve itself, all men get to vote
  • Monarchy dissolved and the country is a monarchy now

French Revolution War

1792 - 1815
  • Course: France has no army so starts to lose to Austria and Prussia, National Assembly starts conscription, censorship, mobilization of the economy, and propaganda to bolster the war effort

Storming of the Tuileries

August 10, 1792
  • Lock up the king because looking for notes between the Prussians and the Austirans

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794
  • Robespierre and Committee of Public safety hold special military tribunals and kill lots of people

Revolt in the Vendee

1793 - 1794
  • Revolt in the Catholic Part of France (guerilla warfare)
  • Committee of Public Safety Rises up to stop the revolt as a sort of dictatorial power

Directory Period

1795 - 1799
  • Executive branch of 5 individuals
  • Stop the reign of Terror, capital punishment back, bring back Churches, no universal male suffrage, slavery brought back
  • Conservative reaction to revolution

Coup of 18 Brumaire

  • Napoleon wanted to take over the Directory and become one of the sole leaders
  • Forced directory to resign

Consulate or Triumvirate

1799 - 1804
  • Started with Plebiscite where Napoleon makes everything look normal
  • Veiled dictatorship where Napoleon has almost complete control
  • Reforms: bank of France, toleration, Concordat of 1801 (compromise between Church and Napoleon), supported Science, Legion of Honor, Napoleonic Code, education, Napoleonic code

First Empire

1804 - 1814
  • First consulate -> consulate for life -> monarch
  • Coronated as the Emperor in Notre Dame
  • War started again because people didn't want him to get too much power

Napoleonic Code

1807 - 1815
  • Equality before the law, property rights for peasants, women submissive to men