The first to shift from hand tools to powered machines. New tools and technology. This was only possible because after the Glorious Revolution, England was where it needed to be politically and it was stable enough, unified, understood Laissez faire to make economic gains in the future. England is quite conservative in all of this so they can make sure to keep theirs gains and wealth. Yet the shifting to new machines and emphasis on economics allows for more social mobility.
After the English Revolution 1688, ascendancy of property owning class. British gov in hands of parliament which was the landowners. This lead to the agricultural revolution which made the industrial revolution possible.
Agricultural Rev - experimenting agriculturally, crop rotation,
Enclosure acts authorizing fences, walls, etc. creating more private land. Land only in hands of a small class of people. Many others were squished into large plots of land with others (this reached its height during French Rev). --> productivity increased with all this. Working people more mobile to find jobs and more reliant on landowners for jobs.
England only got more rich with imperialism and strong ships. The cotton market was prosperous. Textile industry invented + machine (spindle, loom,gin) to improve/quicken the process. Steam engine to drive pumps in mines to make work faster/easier. Later used in boats for convenient transport. 1840s railroad construction.
Was it even a revolution? 1830s few actually worked in factories.
Being overpopulated (England + Ireland) + unevenly distributed, more in north with all the industry there.
-Ex: Manchester rose unhealthily in population and it is hard to fix/handle - it lacked proper officials and taxing so it lacked other things like police, clean water/sewers, garbage disposal --> chaos + messiness + drab - small living space and insufficient wages. Long and bad conditions even for women and children workers.
*Issue because only unskilled labor needed - skilled labor not needed bc machines
The few rich "cotton lords" got to their place by hard work and felt others would do the same if they only worked hard in L/F gov (social darwinism). Poor worked super hard but its not possible to move up now.
First factory act to regulate conditions under children employment, but its useless because it provided no adequate inspections.
Laissez Faire Economics: Separate from gov, gov keeping out of stuff
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations talked about letting the natural laws of economics work freely in market system (no tariffs). People should follow their own enlightened self interest.
Workers shouldn't expect more than bare minimum because of "iron law of wages" that you can't raise wages for the poor or else they will expect more and have more kids to get more money. This will ultimately fail though because of the natural laws of scarcity that there isn't that much to go around.
Industrial rev was hard for working people. Factory towns slightly better than rural slumbs.
Britain is dominating the game, not until 1870 when it has real industrial competition.
This all affected family life though. Women would sometimes go out and work too unlike before. Sometimes not enough jobs open so they became house wives. Shift in power, Father is breadwinner while no one else is so whole family is more dependent on him.
Two Revolutions: Had been independent until 1815 when they blend to cover everything else, social, etc.
-French Revolution (Political) - Mostly on the continent, now involved Britain more
Dealt with taxes, individual rights, laws, power, ruling, government
-Industrial Revolution (Economic) - Mostly in Britain starting 1780 but spread to the Continent 1815 - Ushers in modern civilization
Dealt with manufacturing, wealth, exploitation of resources, technologies
-Idea of Capital - wealth that produces more wealth like land, resources, etc. Usually controlled by a few people or the public as a whole state (socialist)
-Importance of private property separate from government control - basis of personal independence and profit
*At first, Industrial Rev favored liberal principles, it made Europe more powerful than anywhere else. --> European imperialism --> Non Europeans try to industrialize to get themselves out from under Europe and catch up (like China).
Ideas of political conservatism because people want stability after French Rev clashes with new/different ideas of industrialism.
Will be harder for monarchs and aristocracy to keep total control of public power as the business and wage earning class with grow.
New doctrines and movements after French Rev. --> Whole European rev in 1848
The isms ideas were not new, they just start to define it now in this crazy time because they want to make sense of things and organize.
These kind of show the different isms and reflect the paths and the divisions and struggles between each.
Humanitarianism: Concern for cruelty, torture was gone, even conservatives didn't want to bring it back.
After Napoleon was exiled and France was defeated, the Bourbons were restored in France. Now they have to make a decision, which way is Europe going to go. They are in a confusing time and feel the need to clearly categorize and label Europe as revolutionary radical, moderate liberal, moderate conservative, or arch conservative. There is a new blank slate now.
With the Peace treaty at Vienna in 1815, European conservative had won. All of the original rulers were restored. Habsburgs in Spain and HRE, Bourbons in France, etc.
In this process of picking a path, Napoleon's method of controlling the population effectively was used. States created larger more effective gov, secret police, more effective censorship. This shows the more conservative side winning at first in the struggle race.
The legacy of the enlightenment was also attacked with strong church restoration and probably censorship too.
-Adam Smith leaded this movement + Locke's ideas first in Spain and Torries vs Whigs (liberal) in England
-Emphasis on individual rights like freedom of press and right to assemble
-Want almost any gov that isn't hard core ADRM
-Mostly by business men who want properly rights and L/F, not voting rights, they just want a way of making $, hate guilds, want freedom of trade internationally
These guys are the ones on the bottom, the ones paying for all of this so this is why they get mad and want change. Its mostly the working class who is more revolutionary. Want universal suffrage, detest church, anti monarchy
Lead by Bentham
Radicalism - 1820
Similar to rational French philosophes
Radical reforms of everything like laws, courts, prisons, poor relief
Minority and fear Reign of Terror again
Students, writers, working class
Favor political equality and parliamentary gov - Oppose all monarchy
Socialism - 1832
Shared rep political views but added more.
Detest eco system and how so few have so much - want equal distribution of income
Dislike eco competition and L/F
Supported French Rev and thought it helped to some degree
-Robert Owen - cotton lord that creates mode socialist utopia, high wages, less hours
Most early socialists French working class. Hostile to middle class. Spokesman in Louis Blanc who pushed for social workshops in which workers would work for themselves without the interests of private capitalists.
Communism related weirdly to socialism. It was german revolutionaries like Karl Marx.
Count de Saint-Simon wanted more public ownership of industrial equipment and capital
Same ideas as liberals, radical, socialists. Draw upon legacy of French Rev.
Women like Mary Wollstonecraft push for voting and civil rights. Want edu reforms too. All of which drew upon enlightened ideas.
Women in England believe its 100% Egalitarian - equal rights man and woman. Miller's The Subjection of Women book saying women are inherently equal.
Women in France focus less on voting more on education and work reforms. Not egalitarian, they stressed differences of man and women. George Sand wrote her book about independent women but she was an unconventional women in how she dressed and she was often picked for not being the "traditional" woman.
Want to go back to the old order and stability with ADRM, aristocracy, church
Edmund Burke said the principles of natural law and rights of man were dangerous to social order and that tradition was best. More gradual change is best
Others want to reverse the block and go back which is different from Burke.
No more enlightened despots.
First came in reaction to Napoleonic system.
It is universal, in each country, but unique and specific from culture in each.
Already present in England, France, Spain. They want to keep it. Others want to get it.
It was harder elsewhere with mixes of cultures inside. They needed this to be united and prosper.
Germany - Volksgeist, first cultural nationalism, then political nationalism to preserve cultural nat., ex. Grimm's Fairy Tales that revealed traditions in germany,
Philosophy of Hegel - advocated independent state, didn't like rigid enlightened ideas,
France - Nationalists had to meet in secret societies without being persecuted.
Best known nationalist Joseph Mazzini tried to bring nationalism to Italy. Said nation had a duty to family and god.
List kept political economy in England as it was good for England to do so in their way. List helped with eco like high protective tarrifs not free trade which was used to get to this place but now they need to stay here and get more $.
Poles want to undo the partition and become their own state.
Want preservation of their historic culture. Slavic revival (nationalistic)
-Was more about literature and art and unity
-It was more about a feeling and passion that couldn't necessarily be explained.
-Rejected classic rules
-Distant stories, poems, painting nature
-Gothic + Medieval Revival
-Creative inner genius that does what is best for itself
---Isms of the downtrodden as it provided hope.
Often not supported by countries who wanted order and stability like Austria who was so multi cultural that wouldn't support such different expression of ideas that could hurt its unity.