The first to shift from hand tools to powered machines. New tools and technology. This was only possible because after the Glorious Revolution, England was where it needed to be politically and it was stable enough, unified, understood Laissez faire to make economic gains in the future. England is quite conservative in all of this so they can make sure to keep theirs gains and wealth. Yet the shifting to new machines and emphasis on economics allows for more social mobility.
After the English Revolution 1688, ascendancy of property owning class. British gov in hands of parliament which was the landowners. This lead to the agricultural revolution which made the industrial revolution possible.
Agricultural Rev - experimenting agriculturally, crop rotation,
Enclosure acts authorizing fences, walls, etc. creating more private land. Land only in hands of a small class of people. Many others were squished into large plots of land with others (this reached its height during French Rev). --> productivity increased with all this. Working people more mobile to find jobs and more reliant on landowners for jobs.
England only got more rich with imperialism and strong ships. The cotton market was prosperous. Textile industry invented + machine (spindle, loom,gin) to improve/quicken the process. Steam engine to drive pumps in mines to make work faster/easier. Later used in boats for convenient transport. 1840s railroad construction.
Was it even a revolution? 1830s few actually worked in factories.
Being overpopulated (England + Ireland) + unevenly distributed, more in north with all the industry there.
-Ex: Manchester rose unhealthily in population and it is hard to fix/handle - it lacked proper officials and taxing so it lacked other things like police, clean water/sewers, garbage disposal --> chaos + messiness + drab - small living space and insufficient wages. Long and bad conditions even for women and children workers.
*Issue because only unskilled labor needed - skilled labor not needed bc machines
The few rich "cotton lords" got to their place by hard work and felt others would do the same if they only worked hard in L/F gov (social darwinism). Poor worked super hard but its not possible to move up now.
First factory act to regulate conditions under children employment, but its useless because it provided no adequate inspections.
Laissez Faire Economics: Separate from gov, gov keeping out of stuff
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations talked about letting the natural laws of economics work freely in market system (no tariffs). People should follow their own enlightened self interest.
Workers shouldn't expect more than bare minimum because of "iron law of wages" that you can't raise wages for the poor or else they will expect more and have more kids to get more money. This will ultimately fail though because of the natural laws of scarcity that there isn't that much to go around.
Industrial rev was hard for working people. Factory towns slightly better than rural slumbs.
Britain is dominating the game, not until 1870 when it has real industrial competition.
This all affected family life though. Women would sometimes go out and work too unlike before. Sometimes not enough jobs open so they became house wives. Shift in power, Father is breadwinner while no one else is so whole family is more dependent on him.