Russia 1855-1895


Alexander II is Tsar

1855 - 1881

Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland.

Russia was defeated in the Crimean War


The Crimean War was a military conflict fought between October 1853 – March 1856 in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the Great Britain with Ireland, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.

Formation of the state bank


The State Bank of the Russian Empire was founded in 1860 as Russia’s entire banking system was overhauled. It was established when capitalism was gaining ground in the Russian Empire and it became the first “great reform,” carried out Emperor Alexander II.

Emancipation of the Serfs


The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia. The reform effectively abolished serfdom throughout the Russian Empire.

Young Russia published


A group of students published ‘Young Russia’ which argued that reform was essential and that revolution was the medium necessary to effect change.

Education reforms


Universities were allowed to become self-governing bodies

‘What Is to Be Done?’ written by Nikolai Chernyshevsky


polish uprising


conflict began when a number of Poles refused to be conscripted into the Soviet army. Many Poles were also dissatisfied because they had not been granted Emancipation.

Zemstva formed.


Zemstva (form of local government) formed with responsibility for providing local services including health and education.

Judicial reform


Judicial system reformed with local courts dealing with minor offences and district courts dealing with more serious crimes.