Untitled timeline

THE BIRTH OF KEMET

FIRST FARMING SETTLEMENTS ON NILE

5500 BCE

-Nile overflows, produces silt from September to November

EGYPT UNIFIES

3100 BCE

-Upper and Lower Egypt unify
-Narmer (Menes)

OLD KINGDOM

2686 BCE - 2181 BCE

-Great Pyramids

PHARAOH KHUFU

2580 BCE

-Called "Cheops" by Greeks

MIDDLE KINGDOM

2055 BCE - 1650 BCE

-Information Technology (hieroglyphics, calendar, priests & scribes)

PTAH HOTEP

2000 BCE

NEW KINGDOM

1550 BCE - 1069 BCE

-"workfare"
-Book of the Dead

HATSEPSHUT

1479 BCE - 1458 BCE

-Trade in Punt
-Thutmosis III

THUTMOSIS III

1479 BCE - 1425 BCE

RAMSES II

1250 BCE

-19th Dynasty
-Pharaoh as Nexus between people and deities
-Osiris & Isis, Horus, Amon-Ra

PHARAOHS FROM KUSH

712 BCE - 656 BCE

-Followed by Assyrian rule

SHANG CHINA

SHANG CHINA

1600 BCE - 1045 BCE

-Ordos Desert
-Shang-di
-Bronze Age

EARLY ZHOU

1122 BCE - 700 BCE

WU OF ZHOU

1122 BCE

CENTRALIZATION

700 BCE

VEDIC INDIA & THE BIRTH OF BUDDHISM

HARAPPAN CULTURE

2000 BCE - 1700 BCE

-Extensive trade
-Unassuming elites
-Climate change led to eastward migration of monsoons
-Populations suddenly beyond carrying capacity

RIG VEDA

1200 BCE - 900 BCE

-Indra, Agni, Mitra
-Devi, Madhu (Sanskrit)

UPANISHADS

800 BCE - 400 BCE

-Brahman (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva)
-Devi/Shakti (Parvati)
-Ganesha
-Atman, karma, reincarnation

YOGA VS. VARNA

600 BCE

-Caste (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra, Dasa, Outcaste, Yogis)

SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA

563 BCE - 483 BCE

-Middle Path
-Four Noble Truths
-Eightfold Path
-dharma, nirvana
-Hinayana, Mahayana
-the Buddha Amida and bodhisattvas
-Kwan Yin

JAINISM- MAHAVIRA

540 BCE - 468 BCE

KING ASHOKA

269 BCE - 232 BCE

CLASSICAL CHINA: DAOISM & CONFUCIANISM

LATER ZHOU

700 BCE - 200 BCE

KUNFUZI OR CONFUCIUS

551 BCE - 479 BCE

-The Analects
-Shu
-Familial and State relationships

LAOZI (LAO TZU)

500 BCE

-Dao (Tao) Daoism
-Daodejing (Tao teaching)
to learn the "way" of the complimentary forces embedded in nature

MENG TZU

372 BCE - 289 BCE

-Friendship & goodness
-Educative role of women
-Tyrants to be opposed
-Tiananmen Square (1989)

XUNZI

310 BCE - 237 BCE

-Humans are evil
-Humans must be restrained

LIU BANG (EMPEROR GAOZU)

256 BCE - 195 BCE

LU ZHI

241 BCE - 180 BCE

QIN SHI HUANGDI

221 BCE - 210 BCE

HAN DYNASTY

206 BCE - 220 CE

-Silk Road
-Ziongnu (Huns?)

HELLAS & THE HELLENES

MINOAN CULTURE

1900 BCE - 1425 BCE

-Knossos, Crete
-Linear A writing
-trade (olives, grapes)
-borrowings from Phoenecia and Egypt

MYCENAEAN CULTURE

1850 BCE - 1200 BCE

-Linear B
-Arete, aristos, aristoi, demos
-Mycenae, Athens, Pylos, Ithaca, Sparta
-remembered in the Illiad (700's BCE)
-raiding and trading
-Dorians and internal rebellion

DARK AGE

1100 BCE - 800 BCE

-loss of literacy
-subsistence living
-Rise of Polis
-Remembered in Odyssey (from 700's BCE)

ARCHAIC AGE (COLONIZATION)

750 BCE - 550 BCE

-Homer?
-overpopulation of Greece
-Sappho of Lesbos
-Birth of Philos & Sophia (Agape, Eros)

SAPPHO OF LESBOS

600 BCE

CLASSICAL GREEK CULTURE

500 BCE - 300 BCE

-Popular Culture & religiosity (Artemis)
-Medicine (Hippocrates 400's BCE)
-Historu: Herodotus (Prsian Wars) & Thucydides (Peloponnesian War) 400's BCE
-Plays: Comedy (Aristophanes, Lysistrata "The Clouds") & Tragedy (Euripides, The Trojan Women)

CLASSICAL GREECE

500 BCE - 300 BCE

Athens
-350,000 people
-citizens, metics, slaves
-Assembly, Council of 500, 10 Generals (strategoi)
-Solon & Ostracism (late 500's)
-women's status varied with rank (Aspasia & Pericles)

Sparta
-citizens, perioeki, helots
-helots outnumbered citizens 10 to 1
-Council of Elders (including 2 kings), 5 Ephors, Assembly
-women manage helots, train as auxiliaries, short tunics

PLATO

428 BCE - 348 BCE

the Forms, Ideas, Ideals

HIPPOCATES

400 BCE - 300 BCE

-medicine

SOCRATES

399 BCE

What is X?

ARISTOTLE

384 BCE - 322 BCE

-Nicomachaean Ethics (courage, prudence, temperance, justice)
-Politics (speech & politics)
-Monarch, aristocracy, polity
-Tyranny, oligarchy, democracy

ALEXANDER THE GREAT

356 BCE - 323 BCE

& the Hellenistic World

FROM ROMAN REPUBLIC TO ROMAN EMPIRE

THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

1000 BCE - 396 BCE

-Latin tribes, Greeks, & Etruscans
-cultural influence of the Greeks & Etruscans after 800 BCE

CULTURE
-Paterfamilias, Patrician, Patria
-Equestrians & Plebians
-Virtus & Concordia
-All adds up to Res + Publicum (Republic)
-Assembly, Senate, consuls

THE LEGENDS OF LUCRETIA & BRUTUS

509 BCE

DEFEAT OF VEII

405 BCE - 396 BCE

REFORMS

400 BCE - 300 BCE

-Election of two, later ten tribunes
-The Twelve Tables
-Plebians & Equestrians gain access to all public offices

THREE PUNIC WARS

264 BCE - 146 BCE

-expansion of Territory (wealth & luxury)

TAXATION

168 BCE

-taxation becomes the special burden of the provinces

THE RISE OF A SHADOW GOVERNMENT

168 BCE

-patrons & clients (parasites in comedies)
-Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
-Marius & Sulla
-Stoicism & Epicureanism
-Marcus Tullius Cicero (Stoicism)
-Lucretius (Epicureanism)
-Spartacus
-The Changing Role of Women

The First Triumvirate (Pompey, Crassus, & Caesar)

CROSSES RUBICON

49 BCE

GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR

49 BCE - 14 CE

SECOND TRIUMVIRATE

43 BCE

-Mark Antony & Cleopatra VII
-Marcus Agrippa

BATTLE OF ACTIUM

31 BCE

THE ORIGINS & TRIUMPH OF CHRISTIANITY

HELLENISTIC MYSTERY RELIGIONS
-Mithras
-Dionysus
-Isis
-Cybele, the Great Mother

SAUL, DAVID, & SOLOMON

900 BCE

-significance of temple (Ashera as consort of Yahweh)

Two Kingdoms:
-Israel (Samaria) & Judah (w/ Benjamin, Jerusalem)

AHAB

873 BCE - 851 BCE

-Elija, Jezebel

FALL OF ISRAEL TO ASSYRIA

720 BCE

(TEN LOST TRIBES)

ISAIAH

700 BCE - 500 BCE

JOSIAH (KING OF JUDAH)

641 BCE - 609 BCE

BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY

597 BCE - 539 BCE

KURUSH/CYRUS

559 BCE - 530 BCE

-Zoroastrianism (Ahura Mazda vs. Ahriman Diva)
-Ezra * Nehemiah (2nd Temple)
-After the 300's BCE, Macedonians and Greeks (Seleucids_
-Pompey (1st century BCE) & Maccabees

PHARISEES, SADDUCEES, ESSENES, ZEALOTS
-Torah, Talmud, & Rabbi Hillel

PHILO JUDAEUS & PLATONISM

15 BCE - 50 CE

-Platonism (Septuagint, Alexandria)

SYNOPTIC GOSPELS & JOHANNINE LITERATURE

60 CE - 100 CE

-Mark > Matthew & Luke
-Sayings Gospel Q (quelle) > Matthew & Luke
-John (Johannine Literature, closer to 100 AD/CE)
-Kingdom of Heaven
-Messiah/ Son of Man
-Special Option for the poor
-Roman concerns (letter of James)

GNOSTICS

200 CE

-No "one" Christianity

Gnostics (Mary Magdalene, Thomas, Judas Iscariot)
-spiritual God * demiurge
-matter as corrupt

Pauline Christianity
-Saul of Tarsus
-Spirit and flesh
-Jesus, man, & God

CONSTANTINE ISSUES EDICT OF TOLERATION

313 CE

VICTORY OF PAULINE CHRISTIANITY

313 CE

COUNCIL OF NICAEA

325 CE

(Nicene Creed)

THEODOSIUS DECLARES CHRISTIANITY OFFICIAL RELIGION

390 CE

Emperor Theodosius declares Christianity the official religion of the Empire

ODOACAR THE OSTROGOTH & ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS

476 CE

BYZANTIUM (THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE)
-Eastern Orthodox Tradition

JUSTINIAN & THEODORA

527 - 565

-conversion of the Slavs

THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE (ROME)

1453 CE

-Visigoths & Ostrogoths
-Vandals, Franks, Angles, Sazons
-Ziongnu (Huns)
-The Silk Road

THE RISE OF ISLAM

ARABIAN PENINSULA

500 CE

-Desert Tribes
-Contact w/ Rome: Petra
-Allah
-Allat, Manat, Al-Uzza
-Mecca & Medina
-The Kaaba

MUHAMMAD

570 - 632

-marries Khadija (daughter Fatima)
-Gibreel and the Quran
-Five Pillars of Islam
-Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali, Ayesha

HADITH

HEGIRA & JIHAD

622

CALIPH ABU BAKR

632 - 634

"Seal of the Prophets"

CALIPH OMAR VS. EMPEROR HERACLIUS

634 - 644

CALIPH OTHMAN

644 - 656

ALI & THE KHARIJITES

656 - 661

MUAWIYAH (UMAYYAD) VS. HUSSEIN

680

-Sunni/Shiite split

ABU'L ABBAS

750

-from Damasus to Baghdad
-trade & the Silk Road

AL JAHIZ

781 - 868

AL KHWARIZMI & ALGEBRA

850

BAGHDAD & CLASSICAL ISLAM
-lanteen sails, compass astrolabe
-numerals from India (Arabic Numerals)
-Haroun al Rashid
-Rabia al Adawiyya & Sufism

THE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS

900 - 1300

-Sinbad
-Ali Baba and Morgiana
-Sheherazad

IBN SINA

980 - 1037

AL GAZALI

1111

-"The Incoherence of the Philosophers"

THE DECLINE OF THE CALIPHATE

AL- ANDALUS: COURT OF THE LIONS

1000

Internal Dissension
-By 1000, caliphs in Cordoba (Al-Andalus) & Cairo
-progression of Suni/Shiite/Sufi differences

THEODORA

1054

THE CRUSADES

1054 - 1291

THE TURKS

1071

-Seljuqs/Saljuks
-Mamelukes
-sultan

ALEXIUS COMNENUS & URBAN II

1095

-Ana Comnena

FIRST CRUSADE

1096 - 1099

THE MONGOLS

1170 - 1227

THE MONGOLS
Temujin (Chinggis Khan or Genhis Khan)
-Pastoral nomadism

SALADIN

1187

THE THIRD CRUSADE

1190

Richard the Lion Hearted, Frederick Barbarossa, Philip Augustus

THE FOURTH CRUSADE

1204

THE REPUBLIC OF VENICE

KURILTAI OF 1206

1206

Ohedei Khan

THE CHILDREN'S CRUSADE

1212

BATU KHAN & THE GOLDEN HORDE

1236 - 1240

RUSSIA
Alexander Nevsky of Novhorod, Kiev

HULEGU KHAN SACKS BAGHDAD

1258

BAIBARS THE MAMELUKE

1260

KUBLAI KHAN AS THE GREAT KHAN

1260

Chabi

THE RISE OF THE OTTOMAN TURKS

1300

"GUNPOWDER EMPIRE"

OSMAN

1300

MEHMET THE CONQUEROR

1453

EARLY MODERN TRANSITIONS

THE BLACK DEATH

1348 - 1350

-reduced world population estimated 450 million to between 350-375 million in 14th century
-traveled the silk road from China or central Asia in 1346
-rat fleas on black rats carrying bacterium (Yersinia pestis)

LITTLE ICE AGE

1350 - 1850

-northern hemisphere experiences about 1 degree celsius drop compared to 20th century
-bad harvests and bread riots
-witchcraft accusations

YONGLE EMPEROR

1360 - 1424

MING DYNASTY

1368 - 1644

-Confucianism
-Court eunuchs
-Islam in China

Reached Africa

HENRY THE NAVIGATOR

1394 - 1460

AFRICA

1400 - 1800

BENIN
-Ethnically Edo
-Founded by Ewuare (1400s)
-horses used ceremonially by the nobility

THE 7 VOYAGES OF ZHENG HE

1405 - 1433

GENTILE BELLINI

1429 - 1507

MEHMET THE CONQUEROR

1432 - 1481

THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE

1453

-Mehmet the Conqueror
-Sufi Islam
-Gunpowder Empires

Renaissance Italy
-Republic of Venice
-Senate
-Gentile Bellini

YORUBA KINGDOM OF OYO

1600 - 1700

-calvary & infantry (spears, axes, swords)