The title of "King" is adopted when Hugh Capet founds the Capetian Dynasty.
The Great Schism
Approx. 1054 AD
During this time period, two popes are in oath; one in Avignon, and one in Rome. Both popes refuse to acknowledge eachother.
Battle of Manzikert
Approx. 1071 AD
A battle that took place near Manzikert, where the Turks defeated the Byzantines, resulting in the Turks gaining control over Eastern Anatolia.
Council of Clermont
The first speech to "save Jesus' land" is made by the Byzantine pope. This caused the start of the first crusade.
Crusaders are sent on ships and dropped in front of Jerusalem for this crusade.
Created as a result of the king having too much power, and enforcing it forcefully. This document constituted a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges.
Medieval Warm Period
Approx. 1300 - 1400
A period of warm climate, when crops were thriving because of the warm weather, and people had much supply of food from crop land. This period took place right before the ice age.
First French Assembly
In order to attain national approval for his anticlerical policy, King Phillip summoned this gathering.
1309 - 1377
During this time period, there were 7 different successive popes who chose to reside in Avignon.
Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
This was a war that lasted over 100 years, between France and England. Due to amount of soldiers, France started with the advantage, but England went on to create a long bow, which anyone could shoot, giving them the upper hand.
The Black Death
The Black Death was a "plague" or "disease" that wiped out 1/3 of the population. One of the most devastating pandemics in history.
Starting idea of HRE to Develop City-states
Approx. 1350 - 1550
People of the Holy Roman Empire found themselves breaking away from their past, from reading about ancestors from history, which lead to diversion and start of cty-states.
Henry Encourages Expansion
1394 - 1460
Prince of Portugal, Henry the Navigator encourages expansion into Africa for gold, as well as his anti-muslim crusade.
Medici Family Fame Start
The Medici family assisted in the election of Pope Cass, which gave them an advantage in his reign. Pope Cassa in return helped the family to gain publicity and to boost their business.
Johann Gutenberg created the first transportable typewriter, which sparked the printing industry, and allowed mass production of items.
Fall of Constantinople
The crusaders revolt against the emporer, due to the fact that he gave them false information. The emporer stated that they were going to Jerusalem to fight, yet he took them to the Byzantine Empire.
Series of campaign's led by the Christian's in an attempt to recapture territory from the Muslims.
While in a bad storm, Luther prayed for deliverance and promised to devote his life to God, which would drastically change his life plans from becoming a law student.
Luther Attacks Tetzel
Luther made an attack on John Tetzel, a Dominican friar, by tacking his "ninety-five thesis" on the door of the Wittenberg church, because Tetzel was selling indulgences, which went against Luther's theses.
Luther's Church Ordeal
Luther is kicked out of the church, yet the people of the church continue to bring up his ideas, resulting in them being used for political reasons, outside of the church.
Diet of Worms
Martin Luther refuses to take back everything he says, resulting in him fleeing for safety. The Prince of Luthern hides and protects him, resulting in Luthern power vs state controlled power.
Anabaptist revolt from Zwingli and force their religion on the Munsters.
Henry VIII Problem
Henry divorced Catherine and asked for permission from pope to marry Anne. When the pope states this to be invalid, out of rage, King Henry declares the pope to have no power. This resulted in parliament making Henry named head of the church of England.
Calvin Writes "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
John Calvin publishes the book "Insitutes of the Christian Religion" which is a systematic presentation from the protestant perspective.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Council created to reject things that went against their religion. This council acknowledged the corruption in the church and condemned protestants.
Peace of Augsburg
Temporary settlement throughout the Holy Roman Empire, in which each Prince got to decide which religion would prevail.
Charles I Death
Due to conflicting views on taxes and religion between himself and parliament, Charles I was executed.
Francois Marie Arovet Dies
Arovet, better known as "Voltaire", who was recognized as the leader of the French enlightenment, dies within this year.
Idea of Humanism
Movement made to help enhance the learning of the human body, and how to improve lifestyle. This did not affect religion.