World Archeology


Halafian Period

6600 BC - 5500 BC

more storage
more complex ceramics


5300 BC - 4100 BC

Eridu temple is large by 4500 BC
seals and sealings

Badarian Period

5000 BC - 4000 BC


4100 BC - 3100 BC

earliest states
earliest writing
wall cones
first urban centers

Naqada Period

4000 BC - 3100 BC

portable objects
growth of maritime trade
beginning of urban core
Naqada III more expansive tombs

Sumerian Period

3100 BC - 2370

cuneiform writing systems
inscribed wall cones

Old Kingdom Egypt

2686 BC - 2160 BC

pyramid construction
Giza 2528 BC

Indus Civilization

2600 BC - 1900 BC

hydraulic systems
stone weights
seals and seal impressions
writing : 400 to 450 characters

Middle Kingdom

2055 BC - 1650 BC

Less despotic, more bureaucratic
More access to religion by common people and lower level elite
Less investment in kingly mortuary ritual
State becomes more militarized

New Kingdom

1550 BC - 1069 BC

Pharaohs focused more on living religion (temples) and less on mortuary ritual
Tombs are hidden, in part because of problems with tomb robbery
Tensions between pharaohs and high priests
Continued militarization