Was the Civil War inevitable?
Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana enter Union as free states.
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama enter Union as slave states.
Number of free states = 11; Number of slave states = 11
Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state.
William Lloyd Garrison begins to publish abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator.
Missouri Compromise is passed: Missouri enters as a slave state; Maine enters as a free state. The law draws a line at latitude 36 30: North of that line slavery was banned.
Harriet Tubman escapes on the Underground Railroad.
California applies for statehood as a free state.
California enters as a free state.
Two new territories, New Mexico and Utah, are open to slavery.
The slave trade in D.C. is ended.
A new Fugitive Slave law is passed.
The issue of slavery in both states will be decided based on popular sovereignty.
The Republican Party is established to oppose the Kansas Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law.
violence breaks out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas.
John Brown massacres 5 proslavery men in Pottawatomie, Kansas.
Senator Charles Sumner is caned in the Senate.
African-Americans are not citizens; Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional.
Brown is captured and hung.
In November, Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, wins the election of 1860 with less than 40% of the vote.
In December, South Carolina secedes from the Union.
The Confederate States of America is formed; Jefferson Davis is elected president.
In March, President Lincoln is inaugurated.
On April 12, 1861, Southern forces fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, beginning the Civil War.