(New Chronology) Located in South-Asia. It was world largest and most developed (bronze age) civilization at that time. Firs signs of practicing first form of Hinduism are found there.
(Old Chronology) The Indus Valley was a developed urban culture akin to the civilisations of Mesopotamia. Major cities- Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These cities housed about 40,000 people who enjoyed quite a high standard of living .The civilisation was extensive, from the eastern foothills of the Himalayas, to Lothar on the Gujarat coast, and to Sutgagen Dor near the Iranian border.
Perhaps, beginning with the Aryan migration. It was the time when the Aryans settled in India. Their villages set the basis for architecture in India. It was the period in which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed.
During this period was formed the central Idea of Hinduism- Chantra. Even more scripts are written- Dharma Sutras and Shastras, the two Epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and subsequently the Puranas, many stories from them are still popular today. Religion start it's evolution in nowadays shape.
Conquer of India by Muslims and Arabs began. Around 20 million Indias were killed. Well-being of India was ruined- by endless attacks, Muslim taxes (Jizya), distraction of temples. But culture survived. Soon Shijavi, great Hindu leader, drove away the Muslims.
1498- Vasko De Gama arrives in Calcutta, linking Europe and Asia through ocean route. In 1600s Britan forms International trade route between UK subcontinent of India known as- "East India Company". That is how Global imperialism in India had began. Very soon Britan gained control over India through politics and private armies.
Brahmo Samaj- a theistic Hindu movement that does not accept the authority of the four holy books Vedas and it does not have faith in avatars.
Neo-Vedanta- a Hindu movement that has a liberal attitude towars the Vedas and created as a response to colonialism in the 19th century.
Arya Samaj is Hindu movements whose members believe in only one God and reject the worship of any idols.
During this period subcontinent of India was ruled over by Brits as part of Empire. Until Gandhi ended it with non violent way in 1947.