History of Russia



Approx. 861

Diverse Tribes in Eastern Europe

Rurik is prince

862 - 879

East Slavs ask Varagian cheif Rurik to be their prince

Prince Oleg Succeeds Rurik

879 - 912

Prince Oleg captures Kiev (Kievan Rus)

Approx. 882

City and Political State
Led by Princes
Important Trading Center

Vladimir the Great in power

980 - 1015

Vladimir the great introduces Orthodox Christianity


Kieven Rus splits up into patchwork of feuding princes


Mongols Invade - Mongol Rule

Approx. 1240 - 1480
  • Kiev destroyed
    • Created Khanates - territories ruled by Khans ( a Mongol leader)
    • Russian princes fight over territory
    • Khan picks his favorite to be the Grand Prince
    • Mongols did not interfere in the daily lives of Russians

Mongols called the land the Golden Horde


Golden Horde Disintegrates


Ivan 3 becomes Grand Prince

1462 - 1505

Grand prince of Moscow and all the Rus
Tried to expand Moscow's Power

Ivan 3 (Ivan the Great) Declares Independence from Mongols

  • Ivan Declares Independence from Mongols and lays foundation for a central government
    • Used the title of "tsar"
    • "Ivan the Great"

Ivan 4 (the Terrible) in power

1547 - 1584
  • Grandson of Ivan III
    • Led 24-year reign of terror
    • used secret police force
    • Murdered his son
    • After death, Russia in state of chaos

Romanov Dynasty Rules

1613 - 1917

Rule under Mikail Romanov

1613 - 1645

Exchanged territory for peace with others

Rule under Alexei

1645 - 1676

turned 80% of population into surfs, or slaves

13 Years War

1654 - 1667

Ukranian Cossacks join tsar Alexei in exchange for military support which leads to 13 years war
fought with Poland-Lithuania
Russia Wins

Rule under Feodor 3

1676 - 1682

Rule under Princess Sofia

1682 - 1689

Ruled in place of young siblings - Ivan5, Peter1

Great Turkish War

1683 - 1699

Russia Joins Holy League in War against Ottoman Empire

Poland-Lithuania and Russia sign Treaty of Eternal Peace


Rule Under Peter 1

1689 - 1725

At 15, Peter seizes power from half-sister Sofia

Peter Tours Europe with his "Grand Embassy"

1697 - 1698

seeking allies for Russia's war against Turkey
Learned about latest developments in Science and Ship-building

Russia and Friends Fight Sweden

1700 - 1721

Russia and Friends Win
Called "Great Northern War"

Made Reforms to Westernize Russia


Demanded Nobles wear western clothes
made everyone who didn't shave pay a beer tax

Moved Capital to St.Petersburg


St.Petersburg was in the land they took from Sweden

Rule under Catherine1

1725 - 1727

Peter's Wife

Rule under Peter2

1727 - 1730

Rule under Anna

1730 - 1740

Ivan 6

1740 - 1741

deposed by Elizabeth (peter the great's daughter)
Kept as a prisoner until 23, when his guards killed him during a failed rescue attempt

Rule under Elizabeth

1741 - 1762

Peter1 (the Great)'s daughter
led Russia into 7 years war

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Against Prussia
Russia allianced with France and Austria

Rule under Peter3

1761 - 1762

Actually 1762-1762
Grandson of Peter the great
Admired Fredrick(Prussia's leader), so swapped sides
His wife(Catherine) and his army commanding officers didn't like decision so deposed him
Died a week later (under suspicious circumstances)

Rule under Catherine2

1762 - 1796

Peter3's wife
Russia thrives under her rule
'Catherine the Great'
Student and Admirorer of French Enlightenment
Ruled as 'Enlightened Ruler'
Built Schools and Colleges
Liked Art
Encouraged Europeans to move to Russia
Expanded Territory

Russo-Turkish War

1768 - 1774

War against Ottoman Empire
Gained a bunch of new lands

Peasant Revolt

1773 - 1774

led by Pugachev - renegade Cossack
stormed many cities
defeated by Russian army

Poland-Lithuania carved into series of partitions, Russia takes a bunch of it


Where exhausted by war
Inherited large Jewish Population from Poland, but they were discriminated against

Rule under Paul

1796 - 1801

Catherine 2's son
Obsessed with military discipline & detail
Opposed to all his mother's works
Murdered in Palace Cou

Russia joins Coalition of European Powers


War of the 2nd Coalition

1798 - 1802

against France
lost war

Rule under Alexander 1

1801 - 1825

Son of Paul
Wanted more modern Russian state like Catherine2
Expanded a bunch

Finnish War

1808 - 1809

Russia attacked Sweden and annexed finland

Speransky Reforms

1809 - 1812

Reformed administration and finance
Alexander refused to back his plans

Napoleon Invades Russia


Napoleon took Moscow, which was burned down
Alexander refused to negotiate, so the French army had to make a long retreat through Russian winter
they were annialated

War of 6th Coalition

1813 - 1814

Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Brittain fought back against france (Napoleon)
led to Napoleon's abdication

Congress of Vienna


Alexander crowned Kind of Poland
Formed Holy Alliance with Austria and Prussia to prevent more revolutions

Rule under Nicholas1

1825 - 1855

Army wanted to change into more European style, and saw Nicky as an obstacle
a whole bunch of people who wanted to revolt