Primary Source Timeline


[13] Women during the Song times

800 - 1400

Many stories have told us about the life of women during the Song times. When women were about sixteen to twenty years old, the marriages were arranged by their parents, meaning that they couldn't decide. They would go to a local matchmaker, or a friend that is close to both the parents and the women. Like other empires, they would stay home, and take care of their children and do a lot of housework.

[13] China during the Song and Yuan Dynasties

960 - 1368

As Neo-Confucianism was developing, two different groups came out with an agreement. The learning of the principle, and the learning of the mind and heart. They both agreed that anything that is in a high demand and is in a great number of supply and is given of the person’s morality. In order to achieve this you must practice buddhism and understand the moral principles needed in order to reach paradise.

[13] Confucius

960 - 1368

"Women and servants are most difficult to nurture. If one is close to them, they lose their reserve, while if one is distant, they feel resentful."

This explains why women and servants are put in the same category. Confucius thinks that they're very difficult to deal with, and thinks very low of them.

[13] The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon


This book is mainly about court life in the eleventh century. It is similar to the Tale of Genji, as it was written by lady at the height of the Heian period. It talks about gossip and makes assumptions on the court life at the time.

[14] Royal Licenses to Export and Import

1205 - 1206

At the time, the kings of England were rightfully able to charge for imports and exports. They were in the form of tolls, and would benefit the kings because it was like they could pick and chose what they wanted from the cargo as their payment. This was deemed overpowered and unfair, and eventually regulated by the Parliament.

[14] The Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

This war was between the English and the French from 1337 - 1453. The English were desperate for the power over the French land. There were 4 major battles and wars, because Charles IV died, and Edward III believed he can come in and rule over France because of his mother’s ethnicity. After 116 years of fighting, the French took their country back.

[14] Michele di Piazze


Piazze's letter explains the effect of the black death from a first point of perspective. He explains how it had come about, and how it effected the people around him, "There then appeared, on a thigh or an arm, a pustule like a lentil." He then went into detail as to how it spread throughout the body, "From this the infection penentrated the body and violent bloody vomiting began." It is unimaginable the how he was able to handle the sight of this over and over again.

[15] Leonardo Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

"As a well-spent day bings happy sleep, a well spent life brings a happy death."

From this quote, we can understand that Leonardo Da Vinci is relating a day in the life to the life itself. A well spent day in his eyes is if a person has learned something they hadn't known before, and done good deeds. Knowing that they were a good person and benefited from that day in their life, they are able to go to sleep peacefully. The same will go for life, but on a much grander scale. If a person's life is meaningful, and most importantly, they are satisfied with it, then they can have somewhat of a "Happy Death".
This shows just how much of a positive and forward thinking man Leonardo was.

[15] Sistine Chapel - Michelangelo

1508 - 1512

The pope was very exited to see the finished painting. Even though it took Michelangelo 20 months to finish the painting on the ceiling (singlehandedly), the pope was very impatient, and would always ask to take a peek at the covered parts of the painting before they were completely finished.

One day, the pope asked Mickey when he would be finished. He replied
"When I can."

This angered the pope, as he replied,
"You want me to have you thrown off the scaffolding?"

Mickey didn't want this, so he removed himself and had the scaffolding taken down. He revealed his painting on All Saints' Day, and when he did, the pope was immensely satisfied beyond belief, as was all of Rome.

[15] The Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Martin Luther was a big figure during the Protestant Reformation. During 1517-1648, the Protestants began to rule and spread all over Europe. Their biggest task was Italy. Luther and William Tyndale began to work on translating the New Testament to German and English, so that there could be more than just English Protestants. As Protestantism was reaching Italy, Rome had already started the Council of Trent, and began to discuss Counter-Reformation, which was when the Catholics blocked the Protestants from having an influence on their government and their military.