Industrialisation and the People

Events

Arkwright's water frame

1769

Samuel Crompton's 'mule'

1779

James Watt invents rotary motion

1781

Pitt enters HOC

1781

William Pitt

1783 - 1801

Fox-North Coalition Defeated

December 17, 1783

Pitt becomes PM

December 19, 1783

Henry Cort invents new way of smelting iron

1784

New Lanark Mills set up

1784

Pitt wins majority in the election

March, 1784

Pitt's re-distribution bill defeated

1785

Free trade treaty with France

1786

Sinking Fund

1786

Consolidation Act

1787

French Revolution

July 14, 1789 - November 9, 1799

Burke's 'Reflections on the Revolution in France'

1790

'The Rights of Man' Tom Paine

1791

Formation of the Society of the Friends of the People

1791

Society of United Irishmen

October, 1791

Hardy's London Corresponding Society

1792

Annual Government revenue increased by £4 million

1793

Trials of Radicals in Scotland

1793

First Coalition- Britain, Prussia, Austria, Holland, Spain

1793

Friendly Societies Act

1793

French Wars

1793 - 1815

Catholic Relief Act

1793

Habeas Corpus suspended

May, 1794

Bad Harvests

1795 - 1796

Seditious Meetings Act

1795

Formation of the Orange Society

1795

Collapse of First Coalition

1795

Treasonable Practices Act

1795

Bank of England suspends payments in gold

1797

Naval Mutinies

1797

Edward Cartright's Power Loom

1798

Income Tax for the first time

1798

Irish Rebellion led by Wolfe Tone

1798

Malthus' Principle of the Population

1798

Income Tax for the first time

1798

Petition by Master Millwrights

1799

Combination Acts

1799

Bad Harvest

1799 - 1800

Second Coalition- Britain, Russia, Austria, Turkey, Portugal, Naples

1799

Robert Owen takes charge of New Lanark Mills

1800

Combination Acts

1800

Pitt resigns

1801

Henry Addington

1801 - 1804

Collapse of Second Coalition

1801

Act of Union

1801

First Official Census

1801

Treaty of Amiens halts war

March, 1802

Income tax made more efficient by Addington

1803

War re-starts

May, 1803

Levee en Masse

July, 1803

William Pitt

1804 - 1806

Third Coaltion- Britain, Russia, Austria

1804

Collapse of Third Coalition

1805

Pitt raises income tax

1805

Nelson's Victory at Trafalgar

October, 1805

Lord Grenville

1806 - 1807

Pitt Dies

January 23, 1806

Berlin Decrees

November, 1806

Duke of Portland

1807 - 1809

Abolition of the Slave trade

1807

Orders in Council

january, 1807

Minimum Wages Bill is defeated

1808

Start of the Peninsular War

1808

Napoleon allows export of French wheat

1808 - 1810

Spencer Perceval

1809 - 1812

Regency Act

1811

National Society & British Foreign Society Formed

1811

Luddites

1811

Liverpool

1812 - 1827

Hampden Clubs formed

1812 - 1818

Methodist Preachers given same rights as Anglican Clergy

1812

The 'Puffing Billy'

1812

Perceval Assassinated

May, 1812

US declares war on Britain

June, 1812

Safety Lamp

1813

End of Wars with France

1815

Corn Laws

1815

Spa Fields Riots

1816

Punishments tightened for breaking Game Laws

1816

Repeal of Income tax

1816

Blanketeers

1817

Habeas Corpus suspended

1817

Pentrich Rising

1817

Institute of Civil Engineers formed

1818

Peterloo

1819

Relief Acts and Toleration Acts

1819

Return to cash payments

1819

Grampound 2 seats reassigned to Yorkshire

1819

Truck Act

1819

Six Acts

1819

Factory Act

1819

Norfolk system of crop rotation

Approx. 1820

Queen's affair

1820

George IV becomes King

1820

Liverpool's 'New look cabinet'

1821 - 1823

Manchester Guardian

1821

Cast-iron Power Loom

1822

Anti-Slavery Society

1823

Reciprocity Treaty

1823

Repeal of the Combination Acts

1824

Free Trade Budget

1824 - 1825

Penal Code Reform

1824

Amending Act

1825

Anti-Slavery Party

1825

Commercial Crisis

1825

Stockton to Darlington

1825

Bank Act

1826

Canning

April, 1827 - August, 1827

Goderich

August, 1827 - January, 1828

Wellington

January, 1828 - October, 1830

Wellington's Cabinet reshuffle

1828

Hot-air blast furnace

1828

Repeal of the Test and Corporations Act

February, 1828

Sliding Scale

February, 1828

Daniel O'Connell MP for County Clare

February, 1828

Attwood's BPU

1829

Catholic Emancipation Act

1829

Metropolitan Police Improvement Act

1829

Liverpool to Manchester

1830

Swing Riots

June, 1830

William IV becomes King

July, 1830 - 1837

Huskisson Dies

September, 1830

Wellington gives reactionary speech

November 1, 1830

Lord Grey

November 2, 1830 - 1834

Lord's Day Observance Society

1831

Slave Uprising in Jamaica

1831 - 1832

Reform Bill defeated in Commons

March, 1831

Reform Bill re-introduced

June, 1831

Reform Bill rejected by Lords

October, 1831

Cholera outbreak in Exeter

1832

Days of May

May, 1832

Great Reform Act

June, 1832

Oxford Movement

1833

Church and Education reform in Ireland

1833 - 1834

Coercion Act

1833

Factory Act

1833

Government grant of £20,000 to provide schools

1833

Commission of Inquiry into Municipal Corporations

1833

Abolition of Slavery

1833

Francis Bonham starts to re-organise Tories

1834

Town Hall built in Birmingham

1834

Tolpuddle Martyrs

1834

Poor Law Amendment Act

1834

GNCTU

1834

Town Hall built in Birmingham

1834

Lord Melbourne

July, 1834 - November, 1834

Official End to Slavery

August 1, 1834

Peel

December 10, 1834 - April 8, 1835

Tamworth Mainfesto

December 11, 1834

Municipal Corporations Act

1835

Russell, Brougham and Durham dropped from cabinet

1835

Extension of the Metropolitan Police Act

1835

Lichfield House Compact

February, 1835

Lord Melbourne

April, 1835 - 1841

Poor Harvest

1836 - 1837

Bad Harvest

1836 - 1837

Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages Act

1836

Enclosure Act

1836

1000 miles of railway track created

1836 - 1841

London Working Men's Association

June, 1836

Robert Stephenson made Chief Engineer of London to Birmingham Line

1837

Six-Point Charter

1838

First Municipal Elections

1838

Anti-Corn Law League

1838

First Chartist petition rejected

1839

Education Grant increased to £30,000

1839

Bedchamber Crisis

1839

Newport Rising

November 3, 1839

Census of Ireland

1841

Population at 9 million

Economic Slump

1841 - 1842

Peel

1841 - December, 1845

Poor Law Amendment Act Extended

1842

Paid registrar appointed for friendly societies

1842

Feargus O'Connor Chartist leader

1842

Railway Clearing House

1842

Mines Act

1842

Chadwick's 'Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain'

1842

Income Tax

1842

Corn Law 'Sliding scale' lowered

1842

Plug Plot Riots

May, 1842

Second Chartist Petition

May, 1842

Economic Recovery

November, 1842 - 1846

Factory Education Bill

1843

Devon Commission

1843

O'Connell Arrested

1843

James Naysmyth's 'Steam Hammer'

1844

Young Ireland

1844

Factory Act

1844

Bank Charter Act

1844

Railway Act

1844

Mines Act

1844

Joint Stock Companies Act

1844

Report by the Select Committee on Joint Stock Companies

1844

First Cooperative Store

1844

Maynooth Grant Increased

1845

Free Trade Measures Introduced

1845

First Omnibuses

1845

Duties Abolished on Raw Materials

1845

Enclosure Act

1845

Irish Potato Famine

September, 1845 - 1852

Lord Russell fails to form Government

December, 1845

Corn Law Repeal

1846

10 Hour Bill Fails

1846

Attempt at National Teacher Training Fails

1846

Drainage Act

1846

Peel Returns

January, 1846 - June, 1846

Conservative party splits into Protectionists and Peelites

1846

Bentinck leads Protectionists in Opposition

1846 - 1848

Russell

1846 - 1852

Ten Hour Bill

1847

Young Ireland Rising

1848

Board of Health

1848

Abolition of the Navigation Acts

1849

Great Exhibtion

1851

Derby

February, 1852 - December, 1852

Aberdeen

December, 1852 - 1855

High Farming

1853

Palmerston

1855 - 1858

Beginning of Fenianism in Ireland

1858

Board of Health Dissolved

1858

Derby

1858 - 1859

Darwin's 'On the Origin of the Species'

1859

'Self-Help' By Samuel Smiles

1859

Italian Unification

1859 - 1861

Formation of the Liberal Party

1859

Vote of no confidence for Derby

June 10, 1859

Palmerston

June 11, 1859 - 1865

Bazalgette's Sewage System

1860

Post Office Savings Banks

1861

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

Metropolitan Line

1863

Cooperative Wholesale Society Formed

1863

Children's Employment Commission

1864

Giuseppe Garibaldi visits London

1864

Children's Employment Commission

1864

Reform Union formed

April, 1864

John Stuart Mill MP for Westminster

1865

Death of Palmerston

1865

Russell

1865 - 1866

Reform League created

February, 1865

Economic Decline

1866 - 1867

Loans available for house building

1866

Derby

1866 - 1868

Gladstone Presents His Reform Bill

1866

Violence in Hyde Park after Reform League Meeting

July, 1866

National Union of Conservative Associations

1867

Fenian Disturbances in England and Ireland

1867

First Barnardo's Home

1867

First Barnardo's Home

1867

Second Reform Act

1867

Second Reform Act

1867

Violent Demonstration

May, 1867

Attempted rescue of Thomas Kelly from prison

September, 1867

First Trades Union Congress

1868

Torrens Act

1868

Amnesty Association formed by Issac Butt

1868

Disraeli

February, 1868 - December, 1868

Gladstone

December, 1868 - 1874

Women ratepayers able to vote in local elections

1869

Suez Canal

1869

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Married Women's Property Act

1870

Forster's Education Act

1870

Civil Service Act

1870

Cardwell's Army Reforms

1871

Trade Union Act

1871

Criminal Law Amendment Act

1871

Public Health Act

1872

Licensing Act

1872

Scottish Education Act

1872

Secret Ballot Act

1872

Disraeli's Speech to National Union at Crystal Palace

1872

Home Rule League formed by Issac Butt

1873

Depression

1873

Judicature Act

1873

Disraeli

1874 - 1880

59 Irish MPs on Home Rule platform after GE

1874

Factory Act

1874

Employer's and Workmen Act

1875

Chimney Sweepers' Act

1875

Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act

1875

Public Health Act

1875

Artisan's Dwelling Act

1875

Chimney Sweepers' Act

1875

Sandon's Education Act

1876

Factory Act

1878

Salvation Army

1878

Charles Stuart Parnell leader of Home Rule League

1879

Summer wettest on record

1879

Land League formed by Michael Davitt

1879

Charles Parnell becomes leader of Irish Nationalists

1879

Germany introduces trade tariffs

1879

Mundella's Education Act

1880

Gladstone

1880 - 1885

Land Act Reform by Gladstone

1881

Fair Trade League

1881

Crofters' War

1882

Corrupt Practices Act

1883

Third Reform Act

1884

Redistribution Act

1885