Indian Removal Act

Beginning

Hopewell Treaty

November 28, 1785

Georgia officials and Cherokee Indians agree to the treaty that will begin the ultimate dispossession of Indian land. The treaty was signed in Hopewell, GA, the treaty established boundaries for Cherokee hunting grounds and set limitations on culturally land.

Holston Treaty

1791

This treaty set farther land boundaries for the Cherokee Indians. This eventually eroded their land away.

Lotteries to distibute land

1805

Georgia held lotteries to distribute Cherokee land.

New Cherokee Government

1817

They changed their government so they could keep their land. Their new government was based upon the United States government.

Middle

Georgia takes Cherokee rights

December 20, 1828

Georgia's legislature took away all of the Cherokee Indians rights. This was an attempt to make them leave the state.

Indian removal Act

May 28, 1830

The Indian Removal Act authorized the government to negotiate the trade of lands east of the Mississippi for lands west of the Mississippi River. The government was to pay all costs associated with migration.

Cherokee vs Georgia

March 18, 1831

Chief Justice John Marshall, made this decision because he thought the Cherokee Indians were dependent nations within the United States. The Cherokee Indians therefore not afforded the protections of the constitution.

End

Removal of Chickasaws, Creeks, and Choctaw

1831 - 1833

The Choctaw Indians were removed in 1831 while the Chickasaws and Creeks were removed in 1833. All of them were forcefully moved western and had to march through harsh weather, regardless of age or infirmity.

Trail of Tears

1838

U.S. president Van Buren ordered the U.S. Army into the Cherokee Nation. The army rounded up as many Cherokees they could and put them in stockades. Then marched the captives to Indian Territory. The march was led by John Ross.

Indian Appropriations Act

1851

This act led Native Americans onto designated land and freeing up land for westward settlement. Then came the making of the railroads. This act ended it all.