Treaty of Ryswick


This treaty divides the island of Hispaniola into two. On the west is Sainte Domingue controlled by France and the east is Santo Domingo which is controlled by Spain.

Slave Rebellion

1791 - 1803

The slave rebellion started a 13 year war for liberation from Sainte Domingue and Napoleon's army.

Battle of Vertieres


The final battle that gave victory to the slaves and freed from French rule. The Haitian flag was also created by turning the French flag colors to its side and removing the white band.

Republic Declared


General Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared Haiti a Republic. The name Haiti (or Ayiti in Creole) means "mountainous country" in Taino.

Haiti Civil War

1807 - 1822

A civial war between the northern kingdom of Henri Christophe and the southern republic ran by Alexandre Petion. Henri Christophe commits suicide after his own army staged a rebellion against him. Jean-Pierre Boyer reunified Haiti and became president in 1820.

Invasion of Santo Domingo


Then President Boyer decides to invade Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) after that country declared its independence from Spain. The entire island of Hispaniola was controlled by Haiti until 1844.

Complete Independence from France


France offers to recognize Haiti's independence if Haiti agrees to pay 150 million francs. This puts Haiti in a tough economic spot for years to come. Many nations, and even the US, turned its back on Haiti in fear of their own country's slaves rebelling. This lasted for nearly 40 years.

Diplomatic Recognition


The United States finally recognizes Haiti and sends in a diplomatic consular.