Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec.
The Indian Act is the principal law through which the federal government administers Indian status, local First Nations governments and the management of reserve land and shared monies. It was first introduced in 1876 as a merger of previous colonial ordinances that aimed to destroy First Nations culture in favour of assimilation into Euro-Canadian society.
Britain goes to war against Germany, Canada is automatically included.
On Easter Monday, four Canadian divisions and one British brigade captured Vimy Ridge, near Arras, France, with a loss of 3578 killed and 7000 wounded. It was a brilliant victory for the Canadians, who sensed a new national awareness.
For many years scientists believed that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas was the key to preventing diabetes and controlling normal metabolism. No one could find it, until in the summer of 1921 a team at the University of Toronto began trying a new experimental approach suggested by Dr. Frederick Banting.
In August, Emily Murphy, invites four women, Irene Parlby, Nellie McClung, Henrietta Muir Edwards and Louise Crummy McKinney, to her house to consider petitioning the Supreme Court for a decision on the question of whether woman are persons according to the British North America Act of (1867). The Department of Justice recommends to Prime Minister King that the best question to present to the Supreme Court is, “Does the word “persons” in Section 24, of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?” The arguments are presented on March 14, 1928.
The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that women were not “persons” according to the British North America Act and therefore were ineligible for appointment to the Senate.
The Famous Five, as Emily Murphy, Irene Parlby, Nellie McClung, Henrietta Muir Edwards and Louise Crummy McKinney have become known, take their case to The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in England (Canada’s final Court of Appeal at the time) which overturns the decision of the Canadian Supreme Court’s “Persons” case and recognizes Canadian women as persons under the law. As a result, women are “eligible to be summoned to and become members of the Senate of Canada” (October 18).
Canada was hit hard by the Great Depression. The worldwide depression that started in the United States in late 1929 quickly reached Canada. The Great Depression affected Canada a great amount. Effects, such as unemployment, drought, and bankruptcies, all impacted the country immensely. Whereas Canada’s poor government role on the foundation was at the slowest, social programs introduced during this period provided the foundation for Canada's current social safety net that is still around today.
World War II began when Adolf Hitler sent the German army into Poland.
MS St. Louis left Hamburg, Germany, on 13 May 1939. The 937 refugees on board the luxury ship were desperate to leave a dangerous situation in Europe. Nearly all of the passengers were Jewish, mostly German citizens, with some eastern Europeans aboard, as well as Spanish and Cuban passengers. Some were officially “stateless” and many had lost their businesses and homes. Others had been freed from Dachau and Buchenwald on the condition they promptly leave Germany.
On 7 June 1939, 907 Jewish refugees aboard the MS St. Louis were denied entry to Canada.
Canada declared war on Germany, 7 days after Britain and France. The first Canadian troops left for England in December. Although "obliged to go to war at Britain's side," King's delay of a week was a symbolic gesture of independence.
Terry Fox began his run in Newfoundland by dipping his artificial leg into the Atlantic Ocean. He also filled a jug with the ocean water which he intended to pour into the Pacific Ocean when his Marathon of Hope was completed.