Civil war between Communists and Nationalists. Communists won, led by Mao. Significant portions of China were also being occupied by Japan as this time, and communists did a better job at fighting them off.
Leader of Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Significantly, he upheld democratic and nationalist beliefs of the US.
Many in Asia hope that empires will fall apart after the end of WW2 in 1945 and US would be the leader of them.
Individual independence victories from the French. French lose French-Indochina empire.
PM Mosaddegh is arrested and imprisoned for 3 years. Later put on house arrest in his home where he ultimately dies.
The Shah returns from hiding in Roma on August 22, 1953
- demonstrated to US that Britain would not be a diplomatic aid in managing the Middle East
Many countries around the world, including Cuba, decided to not take sides in the Cold War.
Egypt and Syria launch a coordinated attack on Israel.
- Nixon thinks Israel is the only free and democratic state in the region, and US only ally in the Levant
- Sadat recently comes to power after death of Nasser
- Sadat thinks Egypt has two main threats: Cold war context and Israeli strength (including its backing by the US)
- He wants to reduce Israel's strength
Afghan communist coup took over the centrist governnment in 1978. Majority of Afhgnas were anticommunist, especially the religious Muslim populations. They attempted resist the communists. The resistance formed into the "Mujahideen," which became heavily militarily supported by the US in the 80s.
US began to realize that Soviet Union was no longer an ally, but a new super power to fear.
Soviet Union desired expansionism
CLEAR to Western Europe that Cold War is not over and there is a need for NATO
Soviet leaders keep dying, Andropov dies, and the Chernenko dies, so Gorbachev takes power. He is very young and dynamic. Large goals. But inherits HUGE problems!
He is during the period that it seems like cold war might be over (until Hungarian Revolution)
Additional notes on what is going on around the world at particular points in time
lecture 15, 16 on Middle East. Preludes 1967 disaster where it is clear that no help can be expected from British
It is costing them too much money
Doesn't want to help Poland when labour strikes start in 1980s
Doesn't want to support other states of the eastern bloc