Later Cold War

United States

Reagan increases defense spending by 50%, 7% of the gross national income

1981 - 1985

Reagan Inaugurated

January 1981

National Security Council funds Contras in Nicaragua

November 1981

Reagan announces SDI

March 23, 1983

Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," was an attempt to create an anti-missile defense system

United States invades Grenada

October 1983

for fear of a communist takeover in the small island nation, harshly viewed by most Americans

Operation Able Archer 83

November 1983

Soviets mistook training exercise as preparing for war

Iran-Contra scandal revealed

November 1986

greatly lowered Reagan's approval rating

Operation Desert Shield

August 1990

Operation Desert Storm

February 24, 1991

U. S. recognizes the independence of the Baltic states

September 2, 1991

Bush, in State of the Union Address, says U. S. "won the Cold War"



Twenty-sixth Party Congress in Soviet Union

February 1981

Brezhnev announces need for "normal relations with the United States."

Brezhnev died, Andropov took power

November 1982

KAL 007 shot down by Soviet fighter plane

August 1983

filled with civilians, shot down because Soviets believed it to be a U. S. spy plane

Andropov dies, replaced by Chernenko

February 1984

British P. M., Thatcher says "we can do business together" to Gorbachev

December 1984

Gorbachev announces plans for perestroika and glasnost

December 10, 1984

Chernenko dies, Gorbachev unanimously elected to take control

March 10, 1985

Nuclear power plant explosion in Chernobyl

April 26, 1986

entire area had to be abandoned

Gorbachev addresses the UN

December 1988

Gorbachev meets with Kohl of West Germany

June 1989

talk of self-determination and arms reductions

Bells of St. Basil's Cathedral rung in Red Square

January 1, 1990

signaled a new era

Gorbachev proposed Soviet acceptance of democratic socialism

February 1990

"end one-party rule, accept a multiparty system, and adopt humane, democratic socialism"

Boris Yeltsin chosen as the leader of the Russian Republic

May 29, 1990

voted into power by Russian Parliament

Gorbachev accepts Nobel Pace Prize

June 1990

Proposal of "500-day" economic program to establish a market economy in the USSR

July 20, 1990

reforms were never introduced

USSR guarantees freedom of worship

October 1, 1990

USSR shifts legislation to a multiparty system

October 9, 1990

Gorbachev proposes a Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics

November 1990

Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russia

June 12, 1991

first democratically elected leader in Russian history

"State Committee for the State of Emergency" attempt coup of Gorbachev

August 19, 1991

Gorbachev resigns as the leader of the Soviet Communist Party

August 24 1991

Soviet Communist Party dissolves

August 29, 1991

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ceased to exist

December 25, 1991

Third World Nations & other foreign issues

Contras attack Nicaragua


Proximity talks between Pakistan and Afghanistan in Geneva

June 1982

Isreal invades Lebanon

June 1982

Solidarity wins first free elections in Poland

June 1989

99 out of 100 seats in the Senate

Tienanmen Square Massacre

June 1989

Chinese government stifled peaceful protests

Hungary opens border with Austria to East German refugees

September 10, 1989

only twenty years earlier, they had signed signed a treaty with East Germany not to release any of its refugees to the West

Gorbachev visits East Germany to find nation protesting against Honecker

October 6, 1989

"Gorby, save us" shouted by audience

Civil war broke out in Azerbaijan

January 15, 1990

Proposal and approval of "Two-plus-Four" plan to unify Germany

February 9, 1990 - February 13, 1990

Lithuania formally declared its independence

March 11, 1990

Estonia votes for independence

March 25, 1990

Hungary, newly independent, held first free elections since 1945

March 28, 1990

Georgia declares independence from USSR

April 1990

Georgia declares independence from USSR

April 1990

Latvia votes for independence

May 1990

Ukraine,Armenia,Turkmenistan,Tajikistan,Kazakhstan,Kirghizia sovereignty

July 16, 1990 - October 1990

Iraq invades and annexes Kuwait

August 1990

Germany reunified

October 3, 1990

Bloody Sunday in Lithuania

January 13, 1991

Soviet troops withdraw from Hungary and Czechoslovakia

June 1991

Summits & Treaties

Geneva Summit

November 19, 1985

talks on better relations and reducing nuclear arms possession

Reykjavik Summit

October 11, 1986

INF Treaty signing

December 7, 1987 - December 10, 1987

Accords on Afghanistan, in Geneva

April 14, 1988

Moscow Summit

May 29, 1988 - June 2, 1988

Sino-Soviet Summit

May 1989

Gorbachev visited China for the first time since Khrushchev

Wyoming Talks between Baker and Shevardnadze

September 1989

agreed on START Treaty

Summit in Washington and Camp David

May 30, 1990 - June 2, 1990

between Gorbachev and President Bush, agreed that Germany's neutrality did not matter after reunification

NATO Summit

July 1990

non-aggression declaration with Warsaw Pact nations

NATO and Warsaw Pact sign the CFE Treaty

November 1990

Summit in Moscow, signing of START I

July 31, 1991

Commonwealth of Independent States created after pact ended USSR

December 8, 1991