Voltaire is recognized as the first public philosopher. After being arrested in France for offending the church, Voltaire was exiled. Once he was exiled he began releasing public printed works for other philosophes. In 1733, Letters on the English, was published and praised the British for their freedoms, especially of religion, and criticized the French. In 1738, Elements of the Philosophy of Newton, popularized the theories of Newton after his death. He released several works over his life, contributing his opinion to society and shaping Europe.