Untitled timeline

Iraq

Midhat Pasha - Ottoman reforms

1869

First concerted effort to build for the future: administrative reorganization, settlement of the tribes, establishment of secular education

British troops invade Faw and Basra

1914

means to protect strategic interests after Turkey (ally) joins central powers in WWI. Move on to take Mosul & Baghdad through 1918. Ottomans also side with Germany & central powers

State of Iraq is established

1920

British Mandate

1920 - 1932

Conquest takes four years. Indian model of "white man's burden" which predilects direct rule, is unsuccessful, British must then rely on system of indirect rule using the population to work with them. Sunni officers and gov't officials placed in power by the British remain so until 1958

Three pillars of the Iraqi state - faisal as the king, treaty which was legal basis for british rule, constitution -- integrate elements of population into democratic formula

Constitution passed

1924

Failed to take root because iraqis were not given real responsibility and they came to regard it as instrument of foreign manipulation & control

Iraq's Independence

1932

and admission to the league of nations

2nd British Invasion of Iraq

1940

2nd British Occupation

1941 - 1945

End of the Monarchy

1946 - 1958

Qasim Era

1958 - 1963

Qasim/Arab Nationalists

1958 - 1968

Revolution & New Government

1958

Coup - Was to reform and modernize but instead brought a decade of instability and military dictatorship

Republic of Iraq/Temporary Constitution

Ba'ath Party Rule

1968 - 1979

The Saddam Hussein Regime

1979 - 2003

Iran-Iraq War

1980 - 1988

Iraq Invades Kuwait

1990

The Gulf War

1991

U.S. Invasion of Iraq

2003

WWII

Elections and drafting of constitution

2005

Parliamentary Elections - Nouri Al Maliki

2010

U.S. Withdrawal from Iraq

2011

Indonesia

Dutch begin empire building

1870

Acehnese War

1873 - 1903

Dutch defeat Aceh

1903

Germany invades the Netherlands

1940

Japan invades the Indies

1942

Sukarno

1945 - 1967

Indonesia declares independence

1945

Acehnese Rebellion

1953 - 1957

Aceh promised special region status

1961

Free Aceh Movement declared

1967

Suharto

1967 - 1998

East Asian Financial Crisis

1997

Revolution

1998

Abdurrahman Wahid Elected

1999

Pursuit of democratization following decades of Suharto's military/authoritarian rule

'Gus Dur' resigns, Megawati Sukarnoputri becomes president

2001

First direct presidential election - Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

2004

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 2nd Term

2009