Alaska History

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Berings First Voyage

1728

Bering's Second Voyage

1733 - 1741

first promyshlenniks into Bering Sea

1743

Much fur, No order

1743 - 1799

Solov’iev “The Great Destroyer” (p. 52)

1764

Captain Cook's Third Voyage

1778

sails far as Icy Cape, names Bering Strait, using initially as a source Stahlin’s preposterous 1774 “Very accurate little Map” “Of the New Northern Archipelago.”

G.I. Shelekhov, “The Russian Columbus,” founds Three Saints Bay on Kodiak

1784

Gavril L. Pribylov claims St. George and St. Paul

1786 - 1787

Shelekhov hires Baranov

1790

Orthodox Missionaries arrive

1794

First 10 arrive at Kodiak. Requested by Shelekhov

Sitka founded. RAC created

1799

Less fur, More order

1799 - 1819

First Battle of Sitka

1802

Second Battle of Sitka

1804

Fort Ross Founded

1812

No Fur, Much Order

1819 - 1867

Baranov dies

1819

Second Charter of RAC

1821

Monroe Doctrine

1823

Ioann Veniaminov comes to Alaska

US-Russian Convention

1824

gives Yankees rights for ten years in Russian waters, recognizes 54-40 as southern limit of Russian America.

Russian-British Convention

1825

gives GB right to trade for 10 years. “In essence the two conventions (1824/1825) spelled the beginning of the end of Russian America.” (p. 75)

Russia Leases South East

1839

Hudson Bay gets leased the South East of Alaska

Third Charter of RAC

1844

Even more Naval control over the merchants

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Russian v. France, Britain, Ottoman Empire

Western Union Telegraph Expedition

1865 - 1867

U.S. Purchases Alaska

1867

Era of No Democracy

1867 - 1884

Military rule followed b Treasury Department rule. No civil government

Department of Alaska

1868 - 1884

According to Gruening "Era of Total Neglect" Army ruled for first ten years, then Treasury Department and Navy rule briefly. No representative gov, no civil government, no land laws

Era of Flagrant Neglect

1884 - 1898

Era of Government by Decree

1884 - 1899

First Organic Act creates post of appointed governor and district court judge

District of Alaska

1884 - 1912

Not a territory

First Organic Act

1884

Created the District of Alaska. Only district ever created in the US. Intent was to save on governance. Provided for only a shadow of a civil government with no rights over legislation or tax revenue.

Gov. Sheakley charges Organic Act needs replacement

1893

Makes it impossible to govern the growing area

Era of Mild, but Unenlightened Interest

1898 - 1912

Homestead Act

1898

Congress extends the Act to Alaska, but doesn't have any practical impact.

Insular Cases

1900 - 1905

Supreme Court "Incorporates" Alaska. Incorporated territory rather than unicorporated. Supposedly same rights as the states. Cannot be let go of.

Carter Bill

1900

establishes Alaska Civil Code. Towns can incorporate, first legal representative bodeis. Took awhile for cities to incorporate due to fear of greater tax burden.

Beginning of Representative Government

1900 - 1912

Alaska Civil Code permits towns/cities to incorporate. Alaska Delegate Act establishes elective position of Delegate in Congress (position lasts from 1906 to statehood)

Alaska Boundary Tribunal

1903

Decides the final SE border of Alaska

Establishment of Copper River Meridian

1905

Surveying of Alaska begins

Alaska Delegate Office Created

1906

given the right to elect a (non-voting)Delegate to Congress Frank Wasky and Tom Cale were initial two delegates

James Wickersham elected

1908

Judge James Wickersham was elected as Alaska's delegate to congress. He was a powerful advocate for Alaskan issues. He win passage of Second Organic Act

Second Organic Act

1912

Official declaration of Territory of Alaska. Elected legistlature, but appointed governor.
No control of natural resources. expressly forbidden to establish counties so they couldn't levy local taxes on resources.

Era of Limited Democracy

1912 - 1958

Second Organic Act creates Territory of Alaska w/elected legislature

Territory of Alaska

1912 - 1959

Women get right to vote

1913

The first act of the first legislative session granted women the right to vote.

Funding for Alaska Railroad

1915

Major increase in federal investment

Influenza epidemic

1918

1,500 Natives died during epidemic on the Seward Peninsula

White Act

1924

regulations on Alaska fisheries

Militarization in Alaska

1940

Started with Elemendorf Field in Anchorage

Referendum on statehood passed

1946

passed by a 3-2 margin

Territory passes income tax

1949

Alaska Constitutional Convention

1955 - 1956

Swanson River Oil Discovery

1957

House and Senate pass statehood bill

1958

Statehood

1959

Alaska gains statehood