ALASKA ALIVE Land, People, Education- MG

Events

Cossack horsemen arrive - Create first Russian Villiage in AK

April 21, 1639

I learned from living and working the Southwest Region in Alaska last year that Cossack, or in Yupik Qusaq*, was the term for the "white people" in those areas.

Vitus Bering sights St. Lawrence Island and one of the Diomede Islands

Aug. 10, 1728

Both land and people

Captain James Cook of England explores Arctic Ocean

1778

Interesting fact I have learned about from staying at the Captain Cook Hotel in Anchorage a few times.

First white settlement in Alaska on Kodiak Island

1784

First mission school for the Eskimos was established at Nushagak by Russian-Greek Orthodox Church

1843

Last shot of Civil War fired in Alaskan waters

1865

Interesting fact

The sale of Alaska by Russia to United States

1867

Rightfully belonged to neither. October 18 is now celebrated as "Alaska Day."

Mining act of 1872

1872

land claims rights

First School in Alaska established by the Russians at Three Saints Bay-Kodiak Island

1874

A School in Wrangell

1877 - 1889

An army private was upset that there was no school for the Tlingit people near Sitka. He sent his commander a letter. The commanding officer sent the letter to Sheldon Jackson, who supervised the Home Missions of the Territories in Denver, Colorado. Sheldon Jackson sent Amanda McFarland, a Presbyterian missionary, arrived at Wrangell in 1877 to open a mission and school. The next year it became a girls school, and records show that it was open until 1889.

Native Children Required to Attend School in Sitka

1881

Commander Henry Glass, the Senior Navy Officer required the native children to attend school. When he found attendance declining, he completed a census, numbered houses, gave each child a tag, and started contacting parents/families of students who were absent. If they chose not to come to school for no acceptable reason, the family was fined or faced other consequences. Attendance improved.

Funds for education in Alaska appropriated to be distributed among the existing mission schools with Dr. Sheldon Jackson appointed as general agent for education in Alaska the following year

1884

Use of English in Indian Schools

1887

Society of Friends established a school at Kotzebue

1887

The Board of Education in Alaska was directed to prescribe a course of study for all government schools

1888

Reindeer herds imported into Alaska

1891

Local school board established at Nome

1902

Gold discovered near Fairbanks

1902

The Nelson Act

1905

provided for establishment of schools for white children outside of the incorporated towns

An Act Authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to allot homesteads to the natives of Alaska.

1906

An Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities

1906

passed by the U. S. Congress on June 8, 1906. (34 STAT.L.225) It provides penalties for the removal, defacement, etc. of antiquities on ground controlled by the Federal Government such as the National Parks, Monuments and Forests of Alaska. Fines of $500 and/or 6 months imprisonment are provided. (AFTC)

The first teachers' conference was held in Juneau

1908

Vocational Schools become more numerous

Approx. 1910 - Approx. 1920

Other vocational boarding schools opened. One at White Mountain, on the Seward Peninsula, in 1926, operated about 10 years and again for a few years after WWII, eventually closing.

Alaska Native Brotherhood

1912

founded the first modern Alaska Native organization

Alaska becomes a Territory with its own legislature

1912

Mt. Katmai on Alaskan Penninsula erupts, creating Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes

Alaska legislature gives women the right to vote

1913

Ben Benson, who as a boy 13 years old, designed Alaska’s flag

1914

born of an Aleut mother at Chignik in 1914. Upon the death of his mother in 1918, the orphaned boy and his younger brother were sent to the Jesse Lee Home at Unalaska which later moved to Seward

Alaska Railroad from Seward to Fairbanks completed

1923

Law passed to protect Alaska's fish resources

1924

Serum Run to Nome, beginning of Iditarod race

1925

Boarding school at White Mountain renamed "Industrial School."

1926

A policy and programming of industrial training for boarding pupils was initiated

Wrangell Institute Boarding School opened - Alaska Indian Service School

1932

Japanese bomb Dutch Harbor and invade Kiska and Attu Islands of the Aleutians

1942

Both a People and Land event

Mar. 12, Work started on 1,523-mile Alaska Military Highway from Dawson Creek, Canada, to Fairbanks

1942

Alaska Military Highway completed

Dec. 1, 1942

Alaska passes a law ending legal segregation in Alaska

1945

Mt. Edgecumbe, a former military installation is opened as a boarding school for Alaska Natives, operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs

1947

The constitution of the State of Alaska agreed upon

Feb. 5, 1956

The constitution of the State of Alaska was agreed upon by the Delegates of the People of Alaska in Convention at the University of Alaska, College, Alaska, on February 5, 1956. It was approved by the voters in April, 1956

First edition of "We Teach in Alaska" issued to provide a manual for BIA teachers in Alaska's remote schools

1957

Alaska Statehood Act

1959

provision to not take lands of Native peoples; Also a people's event

Alaska Federation of Natives formed in Anchorage, Alaska

1966

AFN

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act becomes law

1971

The Marine Mammal Protection Act

1972

becomes law with the important provision that Alaska Native would be able to continue traditional use of marine mammals

The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act

1980

becomes law creating over 80 millions acres of additional parks, preserves and monuments in Alaska. It also contains language supporting continued traditional and customary use on designated Federal lands