Jacqueline

Events

Byzantine

330 CE

11 May 330 CE
Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”

Byzantine

378 CE

378 CE
The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.

Byzantine

395 CE - 637 CE

395 CE - 637 CE
Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).

Byzantine

408 CE - 450 CE

408 CE - 450 CE
Reign of Byzantine Emperor Thedosius II.

Byzantine

469 CE

469 CE
The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.

Byzantine

491 CE - 518 CE

491 CE - 518 CE
Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).

Byzantine

527 CE - 646 CE

527 CE - 646 CE
The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.

Byzantine

533 CE

533 CE
Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.

Byzantine

534 CE

534 CE
Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.

Byzantine

554 CE

554 CE
Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.

Byzantine

556 CE - 572 CE

Jul 556 CE - c. Jul 572 CE
Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.

Islamic

570 CE

570 CE
Muhammad is born in Mecca

Byzantine

578 CE - 582 CE

578 CE - 582 CE
Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberius II.

Islamic

610 CE

610 CE
Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.

Islamic

624 CE

624 CE
Battle of Badr: Muhammad’s forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.

Islamic

627 CE

627 CE
Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.

Islamic

627 CE

627 CE
Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold and Muhammad approves of the killing of all of the males who had reached puberty, and one female, the rest of whom are sold in exchange for goods.

Islamic

628 CE

628 CE
Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.

Islamic

629 CE

629 CE
Battle of Mu’tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.

Islamic

629 CE

629 CE
First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.

Islamic

632 CE - 634 CE

632 CE - 634 CE
Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.

Islamic

632 CE

632 CE
Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.

Islamic

632 CE

632 CE
“Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage”: This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates

Islamic

634 CE - 644 CE

634 CE - 644 CE
'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

Byzantine

637 CE

637 CE
Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.

Islamic

637 CE

637 CE
Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.

Islamic

650 CE

650 CE
Realizing several variations in Qur'ans throughout the Islamic Empire, 'Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Qur'an while destroying the others. Thus, the 'Uthman Qur'an Codex was created and is still the acceptable Qur'an used to this day.

Islamic

670 CE

670 CE
Hasan ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's second imam (his father, 'Ali, being the first imam), is poisoned to death

Islamic

680 CE

680 CE
Husayn ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq