11 May 330 CE
Constantinople is founded on the site of old Byzantium as “the new Rome.”
The Goths defeat Emperor Valens is near Adrianople.
395 CE - 637 CE
Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
408 CE - 450 CE
Reign of Byzantine Emperor Thedosius II.
The Byzantine Empire builds the Anastasian Wall.
491 CE - 518 CE
Byzantine emperor Anastasios I introduces the copper follis coin (288 are worth one gold nomisma).
527 CE - 646 CE
The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.
Belisarius defeats the Persians to the east of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandals of Africa.
Justinian of the Byzantine Empire conquers the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
Byzantine Empire conquers southern Iberia.
Jul 556 CE - c. Jul 572 CE
Samaritan revolt beginning in Caesarea Maritima, perhaps with Jewish support. A number of churches are destroyed and there is a significant loss of life.
Muhammad is born in Mecca
578 CE - 582 CE
Reign of Byzantine emperor Tiberius II.
Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
Battle of Badr: Muhammad’s forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold and Muhammad approves of the killing of all of the males who had reached puberty, and one female, the rest of whom are sold in exchange for goods.
Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
Battle of Mu’tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
632 CE - 634 CE
Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
“Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage”: This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates
634 CE - 644 CE
'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
Realizing several variations in Qur'ans throughout the Islamic Empire, 'Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Qur'an while destroying the others. Thus, the 'Uthman Qur'an Codex was created and is still the acceptable Qur'an used to this day.
Hasan ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's second imam (his father, 'Ali, being the first imam), is poisoned to death
Husayn ibn 'Ali, Shi'a Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq