Australian and American Civil Right Movement: Aum Patel

Events

White Australian Policy

1901

The Australian Indigenous people were excluded from the census and the lawmaking powers of the Commonwealth Parliament. The new federal parliament passes new constraints making the ‘White Australian Policy’ stronger.

Aboriginals Protest

1938
  • It was the first time the Aboriginals had protested against injustice, dispossession of land, inequality, and protectionist policies. This was also known as the ‘Day of Mourning’.
  • Aboriginals were imperiled with starvation if they were not to follow their role.
  • NSW Government changed their Aboriginal policy from protection to assimilation.

Commonwealth Citizenship Act

1948

The Commonwealth Citizenship Act and Nationality Act give the Indigenous Australians the right to vote in Commonwealth elections if the Aboriginal have served in Armed forces or have enrolled in State elections.

Schooling for Aboriginals

1950

It was the first time formal schooling was provided for the Aboriginal children in the Northern territory of Australia.

Commonwealth Electoral Act

1962
  • The Commonwealth Electoral Act now allows all Aboriginal people to vote in Commonwealth elections.
  • The Aboriginal Affair Act in South Australia limited mining on reserves by people other than the Indigenous people.

Student Association for Aboriginals

1964

Sydney University students decided to travel around New South Wales to bring attention on how badly the Aboriginals were treated under the Australian rules.

Permission for Commonwealth Government to make laws

1967
  • Approximately 90% of people voted YES to count the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders in the census and to allow the Commonwealth Government to make laws for them.
  • Every Australian State except Queensland, removed the policies and laws which discriminated the Aboriginal people.

National Aboriginal Sports Foundation

1969
  • The Aborigines Welfare Board in NSW is disestablished.
  • The Federal Government created the National Aboriginal Sports Foundation (NASF) to support the Aboriginals financially for sports activities.

White Australian Policy

1972

The White Australian Policy came to an end.

Land Rights

1976

Aboriginal Land Rights Act (Northern Territory).

Land Rights

1983

Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983 (New South Wales).

Sorry

1998

The First National 'sorry' statement was made to the Aboriginals.

American Civil Rights Movement

Declaration of human rights

1948

Declaration of human rights. This set the bar for equality but when it came to race, it was not followed.

Brown Vs The Board of Education of Topeka, KS

1954
  • In 1954, the United States Supreme Court declared that laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
  • The supreme court also ended the segregation in the classroom.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955

Rosa Parks was arrested as she did not give her seat to a white man in a bus. Therefore, a Montgomery Bus Boycott began after her arrest. Bus Boycott was a social and Political protest campaign which opposed the policy of racial segregation on public transport. This event was sparked by Rosa Parks and was organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. This was one of the major events in the American civil rights movement.

Civil Rights Act

1957

The civil rights Act was passed. The civil rights Act did not create any additional rights for the African American, but the protection of voting rights was increased.

Sit ins

1960

Students would sit at a lunch counter until they were served food. If the police arrested them, a new group of African Americans would go there and sit.

Freedom Rides

1961

The Freedom Rights were aimed at desegregating public transportation.

James Meredith

1962

James Meredith enrolled in the University of Mississippi and became the first black student to do so. He found the way for equality in the United states for the African Americans/coloured people.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965
  • The Voting Right Act was passed which meant the no-one could stop or restrict them from voting.
  • All the rules that restricted the black people to vote such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and other related requirements were made illegal.

inter-racial marriages is unconstitutional

1967

The supreme court states that preventing inter-racial marriages is unconstitutional.

Civil Rights Act

1968

President Johnson signed the civil rights Act. This stopped discrimination in rental, sales and financing in housing.