Early Beginnings of Career and Technical Education
Roman Era - Skills acquired through family apprenticeships.
753 BC - 739 AD
Aristotle - Education is central to being a fulfilled person.
384 BC - 322 BC
Middle Ages - Guilds of sklled artisans provided educatonal opportunities.
300 AD - 1300 AD
The Renaissance - Martin Luther's concept - merging academic + trade education.
1300 AD - 1550 AD
Reformation - Notice was taken of the common man's education.
1517 AD - 1555 AD
Early European Contributors to Education
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi - Hands, Heart, and Head
January 12, 1746 - February 17, 1827
Francis Joseph Nicholas Neef - Brought the Pestalozzi method to America
1770 AD - 1854 AD
Phillip Emanuel von Fellenberg - Education of all social classes.
June 27, 1771 - November 21, 1844
Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus Froebel - Founder of Kindergarten
April 21, 1782 - June 21, 1852
Education in the United States - The Labor Movement
Educated Labor Force, Technical Institutes, Agriculture and Mechanical Colleges
1768 - 1899
Major American influencers of the late 1800's
John D. Runkle - Pres. MIT - Influenced by Russian Ed. - Manual Training + Art.
1822 - 1902
E. E. White - 1/2 of school day - Technical Labor and 1/2 for regular education.
1829 - 1902
William T. Harris - U.S. Commissioner of Ed. - Industrial Ed 2nd to humanities.
1835 - 1909
Calvin M. Woodward - St. Louis Manual Training School of Washington University
1879 - 1915
National Assc. of Manufacturers 1895 - Indust. Ed. for international markets.
United States Education in the 1900's
Douglas Commission of 1906 - Support for trades training in Industrial Ed.
1906 - National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education (NSPIE)
Pr. Roosevelt 1907 urged Congress - Industr. Ed. in urban and Agr. Ed. in rural.
Mississippi Valley Conference of 1909 - Manual training teachers + organizers.
Smith Hughes Act of 1917 signed into law by Pres. Woodrow Wilson
* Federal Board of Vocatonal Education
* Required states to have Vocational Ed. Boards and provide matching funds.
* 1925-1926 First Fed. funding of Vocational Ed. - $1.7M increasing to $7.2M.
1925 - The American Vocational Association is founded
1929 - George-Reed Act extends/amends Smith-Hughes Act - Adds Home Ec.
1935 - George-Ellzey Act replacesGeorge-Reed Act adds $ for teachers
1936 - George-Deen Act - $14.5M for Vocational Education
1939 - American Industrial Arts Assc. (AIAA), in 1942 becomes National Ed. Assc.
1939 - 1942
1940 - Vocational Training for War Workers Program is created
1945 - Distributive Ed. assigned to Trades & Industries Division.
1946 - George-Barden Act doubles $s for Voc. Ed. - benefits vocational agri.
1947 - Distributive Education Clubs of America (DECA) is formed
1951 - House Bill to end all $ for Distributive Education narrowly thwarted.
1954 - Future Business Leaders of America is chartered in Oklahoma
1955 - First National Leadership Development Conf. at Colorado A&M.
1956 - Health Amendment to George-Barden Act adds practical nurses to Voc. Ed.
1961 - Pres. J. Kennedy - Area Redevelopment Act, targets unemployed - training.
1962 - Manpower Development and Training Act advanced technical training.
1963 - Vocational Education Act signed into law by Pres. L.B. Johnson.
1963 - National Education Improvement Act expands federal role in Voc. Ed.
^ Carl D. Perkins Vocatonal Ed. Advocate - Chairman of House Ed. & Labor Comm.
^ Amendments to Voc. Ed. Act in 1968 authorize $800M only $365M spent.
^ Vocational Ed. Amendments of '68 reorder purposes + nature of Voc. Ed.
^ Amendments to Voc. Ed. of 1976 to decrease discrimination.
1981 - Jackson's Mill Industrial Arts Curriculum Theory
Industrial Arts as a comprehensive study and included the four-element formula of education, technology, industry and society.
1984 - Perkins Vocational Ed. Act - Increases, and special needs populations.
1984 - 1990
+ 1990 - Perkins Voc. & Applied Tech. Ed. Act
++ Reauthorized Perkins Act of '84 - Increased funding through 1995 to $1.6B
++ Emphasized the integration of vocational and academic instruction.
++ Strengthened provisions for disadvantaged, disabled, special populations.
++ "Tech Prep" program instituted.
1994 - School-to-Work Opportunities Act.
++ 1995 Perkins Expires - Congress controversy - approprations extended.
++ 1998 - Perkins Act of 1998 - Reauthorized in 1997 but not signed until 1998.
October 31, 1998
+++ Offers greater use/flexibilty of federal funds for vocational education.
+++ Maintains vocational education as a separate educational system.
+++ "Tech Prep" and academic-vocational integration in instruction continued.
+++ Simplified and streamlined requirements.
* Associated with the Smith Hughes Act of 1917
^ Associated with the Vocational Education Act of 1963
+ Associated with Perkins 1984
++ Associated with Perkins 1990
+++ Associated with Perkins 1998