Chapter 5-7 History Outline

Events

Albany Plan of Union

1754

Ben Franklin suggested the Albany Plan at the Albany Congress. It proposed creating an intercolonial government, a system to recruit troops, and a system to collect taxes for colonial defense. The plan failed because it was very controversial and the colonists didn't want to give up power

Fort Duquesne

1754

Washington's men attacked Fort Duquesne and Jumonville Glen was killed who was a French diplomat. That caused Washington to build Fort Necessity and eventually surrender and Washington had to take full responsibility for the assassination of Glen

Proclamation of 1763

1763

It prevented the colonists from settling west of the Appalachians which was Britain's attempt to stabilize the frontier. It further decreased the relationship between the British and the colonists because the colonists wanted to settle west

Peace of Paris

1763

A transfer of land between Britain, France, and Spain. Britain gets the northwest and everything east of the Mississippi River except for New Orleans. Spain gets everything west and Louisiana and gives up Florida to gain Cuba. France gives Canada to England and France is no longer a country in North America

Stamp Act

1765

A direct tax that required you to put a stamp on all legal documents. It was intended to raise revenue and infringement would be tried in vice-admiralty courts. The Act was a lot more offensive to the colonists and the colonists said "no taxation without representation"

Declaratory Act

1766

It asserted that parliament did have the right to make laws and tax the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"

Townshend Acts

1767

Enacted duties for luxury goods and writs of assistance. In response, Sam Adams created the Massachusetts Circular letter asking everyone to boycott all taxes

Boston Massacre ("Incident on King's Street")

March 5, 1770

British troops and colonists faced off and 5 colonists die. Crispus Attucks was the first African American to die in the push for independence. The resulting trial had John Adams defending the soldiers and they were aquitted

HMS Gaspee

1772

A British customs ship that's boarded by colonists dressed as natives and lit on fire. They took the crew ashore first and they were trying to communicate that they were irritated about Britain restricting smuggling. Sons of Liberty were responsible and were fined

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773

Colonists broke into a ship that carried tea and threw over 300 chests overboard. They wanted to communicate they weren't trying to vandalize the ship, they were just upset about the tea

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

1774

Passed by parliament and 3 of the 4 apply to Massachusetts. It's a response to the Boston Tea Party and it's goal was to isolate Massachusetts.

First Continental Congress

September 5, 1774

Met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia and pledged to support Massachusetts and reconvene in 9 months to assess the situation

Lexington and Concord

April 19, 1775

The British army was headed towards Concord to empty the last magazine in Massachusetts. Paul Revere and William Dawes saw the signal the British were on the move and headed off to warn the colonists. They made it to Lexington before being stopped at a checkpoint after but Samuel Prescott finished the ride to Concord. There was a slight scuffle on Lexington Green before the British move on to find the Concord magazine empty. They have to put out a fire before they head back to Boston and they are ambushed along the way by colonists.

Second Continental Congress

May 1775

They meet in Philadelphia and decide each colony should set up its own individual government and congress should appoint one military leader for all forces. George Washington was chosen as commander and congress sent diplomats to seek foreign assistance from France and Spain

Olive Branch Petition

July 8, 1775

Drafted by Dickson and addressed to the king. He wanted to return to "former harmony" but King George responds with the Prohibitory Act. It declared the colonies in a state of rebellion and organized a blockade of the east coast

Common Sense

January 10, 1776

Written by Thomas Paine and argued that what happened at Lexington and Concord should be motivation for independence. It said that it didn't make sense for an island to control a continent and the colonists should rise up and escape England's rule like the Israelites. It was the first of the last two reasons Americans began to push for independence

Liberation of Boston

March 17, 1776

It was seen as a victory for the colonists but the British just left Boston to head for New York which was their new strategy to isolate Massachusetts.

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776

It asserts the colonies as independent and had a statement of ideals, a list of grievances, and a final note of goodbye. There was an issue with slavery and the clause was removed so some states wouldn't leave

Battle of Valley Forge

1777

The continental army was suffering through a harsh winter and when a small pox epidemic broke out, Washington ordered the inoculation of his entire army.

Battle of Saratoga

1777

This was a significant battle that helped to sway France to ally with the colonists. It was the turning point in the war

Battle of Charles Town

1780

It was the colonists' worst defeat of the war

Articles of Confederation

1781

Battle of Capes

1781

Battle of Yorktown

October 19, 1781

Washington surrounded Cornwallis's troops in Yorktown and Cornwallis eventually surrendered

Peace of Paris ("Treaty of Paris")

1783

It officially ended the war between Britain and the colonies

Shay's Rebellion

1786

Daniel Shay led an uprising against high state taxes and led a march on debtor's courts. He and his men attempt to storm an armory but they were defeated by the Massachusetts militia. it shows that the Articles aren't working

Federalist Papers

1787

It was a series of essays written by Madison, Hamilton and Jay and it presented the reasons for supporting the constitution

Compromise Between Federalists and Antifederalists

1789

The compromise was the federalists have to agree to add a bill of rights and it takes effect in 1789

Judiciary Act

1789

It states that the power to create new courts is given to congress, extends the supreme court's jurisdiction, establishes 6 judges on the supreme court. As a result there were a lot more courts created, specifically a series of district and circuit courts across the country

Bill of Rights

1791

Mainly composed by Madison and contained the first ten amendments to the constitution. it was adopted in 1791

Proclamation of Neutrality

1793

Washington stated that the United States wouldn't help Britain or France in the conflict in Europe and he asks them to honor the states' neutrality

Washington's Farewell Address

1796

Washington gives a series of warnings to the people of America as he leaves office. He warns them to be careful about foreign affairs and alliances, partisanship has to stop, be wary of sectionalism, and the constitution is an effective system of government

XYZ Affair

1797

American diplomats attempt to talk with the French leader Talleyrand but he wouldn't meet with them. Instead he sent notes to them and bribes them. The diplomats take the letters home and they're published with the diplomats' names as X, Y, and Z to protect their identities.

Revolution of 1800

1800

The election of 1800 was the first time one political party peacefully gave up power to the other