he was considered the greatest surgeon at the time due to his skills learned on the battlefields.
Andrea Cesalpino -
1519 - 1603
had theories concerning lesser and greater circulation within the body and that blood began in the heart.
Published "The Structure of the Human Body" - Found his information through the dissection of corpses
Ambroise Pare - published his book about experiences treating war injuries
He made advances in the use of ligatures to staunch blood flow and stated that it was better for the injured to dress bullet woulds with a mix of egg yolk, oil of roses and turpentine, as opposed to painful cauterization.
created what may have been the first thermometer. There was no scale of measurement for it to be of use
Approx. 1597 - Approx. 1677
first to describe the liver, stomach, and intestines in medical literature.
Jan Baptista Van Helmont
the first to state that air was made of different gasses, and in fact coined the term "gas"
Wilhelm Fabry of Hilden
considered the "Father of German Surgery." He innovated the concept of amputating at health tissue instead of diseased tissue.
He published "The Anatomical Function of the Movement of the Heart and the Blood in Animals". He stated that blood does not randomly flow through the body but is pumped in a specific circuit.
He was one of the first to point to microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases and the spread of the disease.
Marcello Malpighi .
He pioneered the use of the microscope in the study of biology. He was the first scientist to observe capillaries that circulated blood through the body.
He disproved that tears came from the brain
He created the most thorough summary of the nervous system at the time.
Blood Transfusion Experiment
Scientists experimented with transfusing blood from one dog to another
His research showed that even without chest movements, an animal could be kept alive as long as air was breathed into its lungs.
Jean Baptiste Denis
He attempted blood transfusion on a 15 year old boy using lamb blood. This was done as the boy was weakened by too much blood letting.
Requested Blood Transfusion
Student at Cambridge requested blood transfusion because he was feeling "frantic". The hope was that by transfusing his blood with the blood of sheep, his blood would cool down and he would be less frantic.
He used math to create tables of life expectancy
Blood transfusions were made illegal in France
Blood transfusions were not mentioned again for 2 centuries
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
He discovered male spermatozoa using a microscope
Up until the end of the 17th century, males were not typically present at births. But male midwifery became popular in some areas of Europe during this time.
Use of Inoculations Began
Moisture was taken from a sick person's skin and applied to the skin of another person in hopes of bringing about a mild form of the sickness to make the person immune
He added onto the work of Christian Huygens to create the table of life expectancy