Set the precedent fro the concept of a strong chief executive. Built the first modern political-party with a spoils system and patronage jobs, which allowed him to appeal directly to the public and circumvent elected representatives.
Built on Andrew Jackson's model by using political patronage.
Followed Theodore Roosevelt by pursuing more foreign-policy objectives. Woodrow Wilson became the first president to propose and draft legislation.
Reshaped presidential power to fit modern times.
In 1952 when a court ruled against presidential power, the Supreme Court ruled that Truman had no legitimate power to nationalize steel mills during the Korean War
With Eisenhower, Congress continued to defer and the president grew more involved in global affairs
Kennedy asserted that he had full authority as commander-in-chief to take military action.
The run of unchallenged imperial presidency power ended during Johnson's administration
Democrats fought the president's efforts to spend more on defense without raising taxes
Increased partisanship and an assertive Congress battled the administration
Fought a Republican majority in Congress, but was impeached because of the scandals surrounding his personal behavior
Entered office in a time when presidential clout was on the wane. Bush was the leader of the first unified Republican government in half a century. Tried to rekindle the imperial presidency by battling Congress over war powers and advocating aggressive use of power.
During the Civil War, Lincoln asserted that the president was entitled to assume “war power” and did not need specific constitutional authority to act at home or on foreign soil.
Roosevelt adopted the imperial president model after the Spanish-American War led the US to pursue more foreign policy objectives.
Congress granted Woodrow Wilson expanded war powers during World War 1
Roosevelt won huge victories as Congress ceded authority in fiscal policy, banking, housing, and agriculture during the Great Depression.
The Emergency Banking Act was presented during the "Bank Holiday." Roosevelt helped reopened banks that were solvent and assisted those that were not, ending the bank crisis. It gave the president the ability to control over the national finances and foreign exchange during an emergency.
During WW2, Roosevelt gained unprecedented emergency authority to dispense economic relief and to pan military actions.
The Supreme Court upheld Roosevelt's Executive Order, which led to curfews against members of a minority group
The Supreme Court applied the strict scrutiny standard to racial discrimination by the government and held that the government met that standard.
Since the Cold War, Congress has been working to decrease the president's power partly by blocking him from assembling permanent working majorities in either the House or Senate
Limited the power of the president (Truman at the time) to seize private property in the absence of either specifically enumerated authority
Gave Johnson de facto power to fight in Vietnam, but Congress still refused to accept the decision to send troops
Forced the president to obtain congressional blessing for extended military engagements
Established by the U.S. Senate and looked into the events surrounding Watergate. It was the most dramatic check on the president exercised by Congress when it began impeachment proceedings against Nixon
Gave Congress its own economic forecasts and deficit estimates, which sometimes challenged the White House.
The imperial presidency starts to decline around here.
Congress use investigations and inquiries to assert its power and undercut the president. It greatly diminished Reagan's public standing and ended his conservative revolution.
Gives the president increased powers to wiretap suspected terrorists without judicial supervision. Possibly violates the Fourth Amendment, which makes it very controversial
After the terrorist attacks, George W. Bush used an almost “top-down” management style that envisioned minimal consultation with Congress - viewed as an attempt to re-establish the imperial presidency that prevailed during WW2 and the Cold War
Authorized George W. Bush to use the military "as he determines to be necessary and appropriate" in order to "defend... the United States against... Iraq"
The Supreme Court ruled that the executive branch does not have the power to indefinitely hold citizen without basic due process protections enforceable through judicial review.