Islamic Political & Religious History

Main

Caliphs

Abu Bakr

632 - 634

"khalifat rasulullah" - Caliph of the Messenger of God

Death of Prophet Muhammad

632

Sectarian division created by disputes over next legitimate Islamic ruler.

Umar

634 - 644

Uthman

644 - 656

Ali

656 - 661

• accused of playing a role in Uthman’s murder
• Shi’ites believe he should have been the first caliph; they believe caliphs should be decided by God
• died in a civil war surrounding his unwillingness to punish the murderers of Uthman
• challenged by Ayşe and Muawiya (some of Muawiya’s follwers left → Kharijites

Umayyid Caliphate

661 - 749

Abbasid Caliphate

749 - 1258

Based in Baghdad

Buyids (Shi'i Interlude)

945 - 1055

Shi'ite Caliphate in Baghdad; begin the Shi'i Interlude

Fatimids in Egypt (Shi'ite - Ismaeli)

969 - 1171

mahdi-based doctrine

Seljuks in Baghdad

1055 - 1131

Ottoman Caliphate

1517 - 1800

Important Polities

Mamluks

1250 - 1517

Mongols Rule Muslim Lands

1258 - 1357

Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1923

Mehmed I

1413 - 1421

Mehmed II (the Conqueror)

1451 - 1481

Bayezid II

1481 - 1512

Shah Ismail

1501 - 1524

Safavid Empire

1501 - 1666

Selim I (the Grim)

1512 - 1520

Süleyman I (the Magnificent)

1520 - 1566

Important Political Events

Babai revolt

1239 - 1240

Uprising by the Vefai order of Sunnis, who viewed Baba Iluas as a prophet; crushed by Seljuks

Mongols Sack Baghdad

1258

Battle of Ankara

1402

Timurids defeat Ottomans; delays Ottoman growth

Revolt of Sheikh Bedreddin

1416

Sufi anti-nomian revolt against Ottoman state led by Sheikh Bedreddin; strong messiahnic overtones; demonstrated that charismatic messianic figures are dangerous and caused centralizing response by state

Conquest of Constantinople

1453

Shah Kulu insurrection in Teke

1511

Popular uprising by pro-safavid religious leader in Anatolia; Bayezid II not effective in defeating them

Battle of Chaldiran

1514

Safavids vs. Ottomans for the first time; Ottomans won; ended in massacre of kizilbas (Sufi order who supported Safavids)

Conquest of Egypt, Syria, and Hijaz

1516 - 1517

Treaty of Amasya

1555

Treaty with Safavids. First peace treaty of Ottomans - denotates a time of Ottoman territorial consolidation.

Katib Çelebi

1609 - 1657