Sectarian division created by disputes over next legitimate Islamic ruler.
"khalifat rasulullah" - Caliph of the Messenger of God
• accused of playing a role in Uthman’s murder
• Shi’ites believe he should have been the first caliph; they believe caliphs should be decided by God
• died in a civil war surrounding his unwillingness to punish the murderers of Uthman
• challenged by Ayşe and Muawiya (some of Muawiya’s follwers left → Kharijites
Based in Baghdad
Shi'ite Caliphate in Baghdad; begin the Shi'i Interlude
Uprising by the Vefai order of Sunnis, who viewed Baba Iluas as a prophet; crushed by Seljuks
Timurids defeat Ottomans; delays Ottoman growth
Sufi anti-nomian revolt against Ottoman state led by Sheikh Bedreddin; strong messiahnic overtones; demonstrated that charismatic messianic figures are dangerous and caused centralizing response by state
Popular uprising by pro-safavid religious leader in Anatolia; Bayezid II not effective in defeating them
Safavids vs. Ottomans for the first time; Ottomans won; ended in massacre of kizilbas (Sufi order who supported Safavids)
Treaty with Safavids. First peace treaty of Ottomans - denotates a time of Ottoman territorial consolidation.