Brian Santini's AP Euro Timeline



1304 - Approx. 1650

Humanism is a type of ideal that focuses mainly on the classics. Petrarch created this ideal and it stayed true throughout the entirety of period 1.

Black Death

Approx. 1344 - 1390

The black death aka Bubonic plague was a disease that ravage through Europe killing 1/3 the population and started the Italian renaissance.

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

Time of peace and prosperity that allowed for Italians to thrive in science, math, and arts.

End of serfdom

1358 - 1861

The end of serfdom marked the step into the next generation from both an economic stand point and a social standpoint. It was in this time that the serfs became less important and the rise of Gentries began. The end of serfdom occurred several more times throughout all of history with the last end occurring in Russia in 1861

The Medici Family

1400 - 1494

The Medici family rose to power during the renaissance era influencing both the political and economic powers especially because they were affluent bankers.

Habsburgs in Austria

1438 - 1780

The House of Habsburg, also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe.


1440 - 1740

The Hapsburg's were a royal dynasty that controlled the holy roman empire for several consecutive centuries. They also fought in a war with the ottoman empire over control of land. By the end of 1648 controls Spain as well.


1450 - Approx. 1800

Exploration to the new world, Africa, and India were huge at this time and started several systems including the columbian exchange and the encomienda system.

Northern Renaissance

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1658

This renaissance was more religious and focused more on people in their paintings. The end of this renaissance sparked a time of religious reformation. More civic and social minded rather then money and cool stuff like the Medici´s

Double Entry Book Keeping

1450 - 1650

A system of bookkeeping with two columns, one with debits and the other assets. There would be a running total that was comparable at any time.

Vasco da Gama

1460 - 1524

Vasco was a Portuguese explorer that became the first person to reach India by sea by going around Africa.

Spanish Inquisition

1478 - 1648

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.

Witch Hunts

1480 - 1570

Witch hunts were crazes across Europe of people ravaging different towns and villages and basically killing all the women and some men after accusing them of witch craft

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was a German professor and monk who took a stand against the church and nailed his 95 thesis on the front door of the church to speak out against their injustices. This started a new religion of Lutheranism.

Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1556

Saint Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish Basque priest who founded the religious order called the "Society of Jesus" and became its first Superior Genera. CATHOLIC REFORMATION. This group spreads their beliefs through force and prayer.


1500 - 1648

Centralization was first attempted by Spain in the 16th century. It failed and was later successful in Spain, Sweden, and France. Was failed by The Holy Roman Empire and Poland. England Was successful at first and then was later interrupted by the English civil war.

Population Increased

1500 - 1600

The Population increased during this time due to new ideals and new set ways about religion and life.

Concordat of Bologna

1/1/1516 - 1/2/1516

The Concordat of Bologna, marking a stage in the evolution of the Gallican Church, was an agreement between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X that Francis negotiated in the wake of his victory at Marignano in September 1515.


1517 - Approx. 1648

Reformation was the start of social reform against the church for religious pluralism. Including Anabaptist, Lutheranism, and Calvinists.

Wars of Religion

1524 - 1648

The wars of religion are wars fought across Europe that were fought after the reformation


1527 - 1650

Anabaptist are a group of people that split off from the church beginning a new religion during the time of religious reformation. Hated because they want separate church and state.



2nd reformer first was luther then zwingli then clavin.

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1700

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. Included the likes of Newton and Copernicus

War of the 3 Henry's

1584 - 1589

The war of the three Henry's was the final civil war within France it ended with King Henry of Navarre coming out as a victor. Before this the Henry's had some of Europe divided between them.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy shared ideals with locke

spanish armada

1588 - January 1, 1588

The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from La Coruña in August 1588. sent by King Phillip to threaten Queen ELizabth

Edict of Nantes

April 1598

Basically King Henry IV saying he agrees to be christian as long as they allow religious pluralism.

Spanish Inflation

1600 - 1648


1600 - 1750

elating to or denoting a style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail. In architecture the period is exemplified by the palace of Versailles and by the work of Bernini in Italy. Major composers include Vivaldi, Bach, and Handel; Caravaggio and Rubens are important baroque artists.

German Pietism

1618 - 1648

Pietism was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.

30 years war

1618 - 1648

A war waged in the early seventeenth century that involved France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and numerous states of Germany. The causes of the war were rooted in national rivalries and in conflict between Roman Catholics and Protestants.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism"

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Absolutist monarch of France and was monarch of the house of bourbon. He also controlled the life of people and changing how they lived within their respective areas. Within Versailles people lived rich while in paris they did not.

Intellectual freedom vs. religious persecution

1648 - 1815

This is the debate between philosophers whether we think for themselves or they follow a set guide in religion.

Peace of Westphalia


The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion.


1648 - 1815

hands off approach to econmics

British and French commercial empires

1650 - 1770

rise of different economic trade policies as well as increase in capitalism between the two countries and throughout europe


1650 - 1850

The Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".


1658 - 1815

Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity
Jacques-Louis David
Jean-Baptiste Debret

Daniel Defoe

1659 - 1731

Daniel Defoe was an English trader, writer, journalist. He is most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, which is second only to the Bible in its number of translations.

Dutch War

1672 - 1678

The dutch war was simply a war between the dutch. Many countries joined this war to try and conquer them in order to take control of their land.

Peter the Great of Russia

1682 - 1725

Leader of russia who lead a cultural revolution. Along with this he also brought in new ideals including the enlightenment.

George Frederick Handel

1685 - 1759

German neoclassic composer

Nine Years' War

1688 - 1697

The Nine Years' War – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria

Glorious Revolution (England)

1688 - 1689

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

1689 - 1762

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was an English aristocrat


1689 - 1755

was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment


1694 - 1778

advocated religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and freedom of press. He was still a constitutional monarchist. He got cast out like 3 times


1700 - 1800

salons were a meeting place for casual debate about policies and philosophies.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain. Later resulted in the triggering of part of spain trying to leave. This is when louis XIV got involved.


1710 - 1765

Physiocracy is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations. They were proponents of laiszez faire

David Hume

1711 - 1776

David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism and naturalism

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1788

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. He also hated women and said they didn't deserve rights. @Ben


1713 - 1784

Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

Catherine the Great

1729 - 1796

empress of Russia and the longest female leader of that country. She was enlightened and then the peasant revolt happened and she was like nah I don't like this anymore.

Edmund Burke

12 January 1729 - 9 July 1797

Edmund Burke was an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher

Absolutism v. Enlightened Absolutism

1740 - 1786

Absolutism is the absolute rule from a monarchy with only one ruler controlling everything and is strict. Enlightened Absolutism is the ideal of absolutism with the added bonus of enlightened ideals from philosophers.

Jeremy Bentham

1748 - 1832

Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

Consumer Revolution

1750 - 1800

refers to the period from approximately 1600 to 1750 in England in which there was a marked increase in the consumption and variety of "luxury" goods and products by individuals from different economic and social backgrounds.

Utopian socialism

1750 - 1914

socialism achieved by the moral persuasion of capitalists to surrender the means of production peacefully to the people.

Joseph de Maistre

1753 - 1821

French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who also advocated for social hierarchy and monarchy in period 3

Seven Years’ War

1754 - 1763

e Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines

Maximilien Robespierre

1758 - 1794

One of the most influential people during this time. Was apart of the Committee of public safety the group in control of the reign of terror at this time.

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

mother to the writer of Frankenstein. Advocated for women rights. wrote a vindication for the rights of women.

Polish Partition

1772 - 1795

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state

Klemens von Metternich

1773 - 1859

a German diplomat and statesman and one of the most important of his era served as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister. He was very conservative

Sunday school movement


Robert Raikes and Thomas Stock first established a Sunday school for the poor and orphaned in Gloucester in 1780. Although there were earlier Sunday schools, Raikes and Stock have become the recognized originators.

Temperance movement

1784 - 1933

The Temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Friedrich List’s National System

1789 - 1846

Friedrich List was a leading 19th-century German with dual American citizenship economist who developed the "National System" or what some would call today the National System of Innovation

French Revolution/ stages

Approx. 1789 - Approx. 1815

Liberal Stage of the French revolution

1789 - 1792

The liberal stage of the french revolution established a constitutional monarchy. Along with this there was an increase in political participation, nationalization of the Catholic Church and abolished of heredity privileges. The national assembly retained power over the monarchy during this time. The National assembly is elected by the third estate. The August 4th declaration can be one piece of culture in this time because it allowed for the return of land to the people.


1792 - 1794

Phase of revolution were they used barbaric force to gain freedom. Some cultural aspects of this time was the Paris commune which allowed for a radical government to be in charge. During this time radicals held the power which created chaos for freedom.

King Louis XVI


Tried to stop the 3rd estate however he was defied by the lower clergy and they had the Tennis court oath in direct defiance of him.

Jacques-Louis David


French Painter who emphasized the works of the reaction of the reign of terror. Along with working on these paintings he was also a proponent of neoclassic art.

Thermidorian Reaction

1794 - 1795

The Thermidorian Reaction was the reaction to the chaos of the radical time period. During this time was the committee of public safety which extended its power past power. They held power while the rest of the revolution reflected on the reign of terror as well as sparked a distrust in banks and the military. One aspect of this was a change in government it moved from radical government to a more moderate government.



Inoculation originated as a method for the prevention of smallpox by deliberate introduction of material from smallpox pustules into the skin


1798 - 1857

"The Black Man's Burden"
Sarcastic version of a white mans burden
Pointed out destructive effects of Western imperialism on Africans

Napoleonic era

1799 - 1815

During the Napoleonic era Napoleon held power over the French Revolution. He followed the ideals of Rome and tried to conquer more land he was eventually defeated at the Battle of Waterloo ending this era. One aspect of the time is the conscription of 1808 . This is a cultural aspect because Napoleon installed this conscription because he was a promoter of the military and it allowed for Napoleon to gain more power in the military showing a change of period.


1799 - 1815

Napoleon was the leader in France during the time of the french revolution. Along with this he was a powerful leader who went through and tried to go and concur several countries around France.


1800 - 1850

a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual


1800 - 1890

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

British abolitionist movement

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1900

Abolitionism in the United Kingdom was the movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to end the practice of slavery, whether formal or informal

Mission civilisatrice

1800 - 1900

This was the reasoning that the countries in power gave to support going out of their way to intervene in uncivilized life.

Edwin Chadwick

1800 - 1890

Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB was an English social reformer who is noted for his work to reform the Poor Laws and to improve sanitation and public health.


1800 - 1940

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. Germany is famous for promoting Nationalism. In WWI and WWII also Spain follows this trend

Flora Tristan

1803 - 1844

Flora Tristan was a France-born Peruvian socialist writer and activist. She made important contributions to early feminist theory, and argued that the progress of women's rights

John Stuart Mill

1806 - 1873

British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism also believed in utilitarianism and added to the theory of modern liberalism. He taught his students about his ethical theory

Georges Haussmann

1809 - 1884

was a prefect of the Seine Department of France chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards

Count de Cavour

1810 - 1861

Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification


1815 - 1914

Conservatism is the political belief of being socially and economically conservative this belief constantly clashes with liberalism which is the belief of being socially and economically liberal.

Otto von Bismarck

1815 - 1898

was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs was involved in the Congress of Vienna and can also be connected to Prince by Machiavelli. He is all about realpolitik which is how he connects to Machiavelli.


1815 - 1848

Consumerism is the act of people buying more with there money for more items that they don't necessarily need but want. This was big with the opening of new shops across all of Europe due to an influx of money

industrial revolution

1815 - 1848

With the rise of new social changes as well as bourgeoisie bringing in new money and opening up shops to sell goods the industrial revolution was allowed to begin. This continued all the way from the fall of Napoleon up until the revolutions of 1848. Some other factors of this revolution was the rise of factories mass producing goods and creating jobs. This began in Britain.

Corn Laws & Their Repeal

1815 - 1846

corn laws were high tarrfis and restrictions on imported good but especially grain aka CORN and they were meant to keep prices high so that people would purchase foods domestically.

Eastern and southern Europe’s lack of industrialization

1815 - 1848

rapid industrialization was from a large number of natural resources being presented however eastern and southern Europe did not have all of these natural resources and therefore had a lack of industrialization.


1818 - 1883

Marxism is a communist political theory in which a control on economics is considered the best way to live in a society.

Cult of domesticity

1820 - 1860

The cult of domesticity is a group formed by the bourgeoisie to train people about true values in life. This group was a group formed from money and allowed for new ideas like Nuclear family to form. These people differed from proleteraits because the proletariat were a lower class.

Barbara Smith Bodichon

1827 - 1881

Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon was an English educationalist and artist, and a leading mid-19th-century feminist and women's rights activist

Josephine Butler (England)

1828 - 1906

Josephine Elizabeth Butler was an English feminist and social reformer in the Victorian era

Factory Act of 1833 and Mines Act of 1842

1833 - 1842

In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows: no child workers under nine years of age.



the customs union of German states in the 19th century



a new source of communication by using a long distance wire to send messages.


1838 - 1848

Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain

Anti-Corn Law League


successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners' interests by levying taxes on imported wheat

“Hungry ’40s”

1840 - 1849

When potatoes failed to grow and there was a high decrease in food production many people died from starvation because there was no food.

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844 - 1900

German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history

Karl Lueger

1844 - 1910

Karl Lueger was an Austrian politician, mayor of Vienna, and leader and founder of the Austrian Christian Social Party.

Ten Hours Act of 1847


This was the act to make a 10 hour work day the longest work day that you can work. This law only was created for the benefit of women and children.


1848 - 1900

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation, particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland

Revolutions of 1848

1848 - 1849

republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Italy, and then going to France, Germany, and the Austrian Empire. They all failed, except for France whose revolution succeeded, and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals.

Pankhurst family

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1900

British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement and they were a powerful family


1850 - 1900

Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

The crystal palace


The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure for the Great Exhibition of 1851.

Bessemer process developed


Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.

Napoleon III

1852 - 1870

Nephew of Napoleon who lead France by becoming there elected president but later rose to emperor. Napoleon III falls in the middle of the political spectrum

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Russia declared war on ottomans in order to get warm water ports through Crimea

Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst

India’s Sepoy Mutiny


The revolt from India to revolt against the British rule this led to the total control from queen victoria.


1857 - 1924

-Wrote The Heart of Darkness
-Castigated the "pure selfishness" of Europeans "civilizing" Africa

Theodor Herzl

1860 - 1904

was an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was the father of modern political theory

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

December 18, 1863 - June 28, 1914

Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

Social Darwinism

1865 - 1900

Social darwinism is the belief that race evolves and the ultimate race is being white and therefore white people are above all others.

Dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary is established


The dual monarchy is the pair of kings that was located in Austria-hungry this political system was set up as a puppet king in which the king of Austria controlled the king of Hungary as well as all of Austria. This gave concessions to the nationalists.

Japan’s Meiji Restoration


Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.


1869 - 1948

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.


1870 - 1890

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities



Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection


1870 - 1910

quinine is a tablet that when mixed with water and consumed is able to help fight against malaria and allowed for a stronger influence on african countries.

Machine gun

1870 - 1914

This was an invention that allowed for more control and power over colonies because they had a high power of assault which allows to control the colonies while dealing with imperialism

Krupp family

1870 - 1914

The Krupp family, a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, have become famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments


1870 - 1890

a system of politics or principles based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations. Bismark embodies Realpolitik which is how he connects to MAchaeivelli

Second industrial revolution

1870 - 1914

The second industrial revolution differed from the first because there was more technological advancements in the 2nd revolution then there was in the first which created a shift in social change.

Italian Unification Complete


Italian unification, or the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

German Unification

January 18th, 1871

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France. This was initialized by Zollverien



large buses that use steel rails to drive across town. Mass transport

Three Emperors’ League Created

1873 - 1887

The Three Caesars' Alliance or Union of the Three Emperors was an alliance between the German Empire, the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1873 to 1887

German Social Democratic Party Formed


The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany

internal combustion engine


an engine that generates motive power by the burning of gasoline, oil, or other fuel with air inside the engine, the hot gases produced being used to drive a piston or do other work as they expand.

Christian Social Party in Germany


The Christian Social Party was a right-wing political party in the German Empire, founded in 1878 by Adolf Stoecker as the Christlichsoziale Arbeiterpartei.

Congress of Berlin in 1878


he Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the representatives of six Great powers of the time Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany, versus the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro

Anti-semitism begins in Germany.

1878 - 1945

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. This was used as hitlers influence in getting elected by blaming all of germany's problems on the jews

Albert Einstein

1879 - 1955

Albert Einstein, in his theory of special relativity, determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers, and he showed that the speed of light within a vacuum is the same no matter the speed at which an observer travels

Zulu Resistance


The Zulu. In the 1830's the Boers, migrated to the interior of Southern Africa and began to engage in conflicts with Zulu



Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions

Virginia Woolf

1882 - 1941

Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer who is considered one of the most important modernist twentieth century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

John Maynard Keynes

1883 - 1946

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes CB FBA, was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

The Berlin conference was an event that was used for established European countries so that they could divide Africa into what they were each conquering.

Indian Congress Party


The Indian National Congress is a broad-based political party in India. Founded in 1885

Indian National Congress


The Indian National Congress is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.


1886 - 1905

the work or style of a varied group of late 19th-century and early 20th-century artists including Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Cézanne. They reacted against the naturalism of the impressionists to explore color, line, and form, and the emotional response of the artist, a concern that led to the development of expressionism.

Witte program

1890 - Approx. 1910

served as Russia's Finance Minister during the 1890's and early 1900's. His program to modernize Russia included:
1. Planned ecoomic development
2. Protective Tariffs
3. High Taxes
4. Adherence to the gold standard
5. Encouragement of innovation

Martin Niemoller

1892 - 1984

Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor

Dreyfus affair

1894 - 1906

The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906



The radio is a device used as a Leisure item so that people could listen to music and the news as well as talk shows.

Fashoda crisis


The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898.

Russian Social Democratic Party (RSDLP)


The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party

China’s Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.

White Man's Burden


The belief that the white man must place the burden of black civilizations on their back to carry them to becoming civilized this is a main factor of imperialism and is one of the drives of them

Louis Pasteur’s germ theory of disease


This was a new way of thinking of how germs work and how diseases aren't just in you they are small microorganisms that wreak havoc in their bodies.

British Labour Party founded


The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom

Breech-loading rifle


A breech-loading weapon is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel

Sukarno & Indonesian Independence

1901 - 1970

Sukarno was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands.

Moroccan crises

1905 - 1906

The First Moroccan Crisis was an international crisis between March 1905 and May 1906 over the status of Morocco. The crisis worsened German relations with both France and the United Kingdom

Jean-Paul Sartre

1905 - 1980

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

1906 - 1945

Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a German pastor, theologian, spy, anti-Nazi dissident, and key founding member of the Confessing Church



The art of painting a picture but in cubes to give a new spin on the art itself. the art is based off of the cubes and how the solid structure forms a work of art

Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

1908 - 1918

Image result for Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1918) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution

Bosnia-Herzegovina crisis, 1908


the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire

Simone de Beauvoir

1908 - 1986

Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.


1909 - 1914

Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.

First and Second Balkan Wars


two successive military conflicts that deprived the Ottoman Empire of almost all its remaining territory in Europe

Total war

1914 - 1918

All out warfare ranging across homes and utilizing even women and children.

Trench warfare

1914 - 1918

a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.

World War 1

1914 - 1918

Central Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front
Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
Russian Civil War and foundation of the Soviet Union
Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
Establishment of the League of Nations.

Allied Powers:
British Empire
Russia (until 1917)
Italy (1915–18)
United States (1917–18)
Romania (1916–18)
Portugal (1916–18)
Hejaz (1916–18)
Greece (1917–18)
Thailand Siam (1917–18)

Central Powers:
German Empire
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria (1915–18)

Commanders and leaders:
Allied leaders
French Third Republic Raymond Poincaré
French Third Republic Georges Clemenceau
British Empire H. H. Asquith
British Empire David Lloyd George
Russian Empire Nicholas II
Kingdom of Italy Victor Emmanuel III
Kingdom of Italy Vittorio Orlando
United States Woodrow Wilson
Empire of Japan Yoshihito
Kingdom of Serbia Peter I
Kingdom of Romania Ferdinand I
Kingdom of Greece Eleftherios Venizelos
...and others
Central Powers leaders
German Empire Wilhelm II
Austria-Hungary Franz Joseph I †
Austria-Hungary Karl I
Ottoman Empire Mehmed V †
Ottoman Empire Mehmed VI
Ottoman Empire Three Pashas
Kingdom of Bulgaria Ferdinand I

Russian Empire 12,000,000
British Empire 8,841,541
French Third Republic 8,660,000
Kingdom of Italy 5,615,140
United States 4,743,826
Kingdom of Romania 1,234,000
Empire of Japan 800,000
Kingdom of Serbia 707,343
Belgium 380,000
Kingdom of Greece 250,000
Kingdom of Montenegro 50,000
Total: 42,959,850
German Empire 13,250,000
Austria-Hungary 7,800,000
Ottoman Empire 2,998,321
Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000
Total: 25,248,321
Casualties and losses
Military dead: 5,525,000
Military wounded: 12,831,500
Total: 18,356,500 KIA, WIA and MIA
Civilian dead: 4,000,000

Military dead: 4,386,000
Military wounded: 8,388,000
Total: 12,774,000 KIA, WIA and MIA
Civilian dead: 3,700,000

Events leading to World War I
Triple Alliance 1882
Franco-Russian Alliance 1894
Anglo-German naval arms race 1898–1912
Venezuela Naval Blockade 1902–1903
Entente Cordiale 1904
Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905
First Moroccan Crisis 1905–1906
Anglo-Russian Entente 1907
Bosnian crisis 1908–1909
Agadir Crisis 1911
Italo-Turkish War 1911–1912
Balkan Wars 1912–1913
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand 1914
July Crisis 1914

World War I (often abbreviated to WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. Over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political change, including the Revolutions of 1917–1923 in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of the Second World War twenty-one years later.

Armenian genocide

April 1915 - 1923

The Armenian Genocide, also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire and its successor state, the Republic of Turkey.


1916 - 1923

Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland at the Cabaret Voltaire

Easter Rebellion in Ireland

april 1916

The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916

Vladimir Lenin

1917 - 1924

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924.

Russian Revolution


The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union


1917 - 1991

a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

Russian Revolution


The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union

The Lost Generation

1918 - 1945

The Lost Generation is the generation that came of age during World War I.

Civil War in Russia

1918 - 1921

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future

Mandate States


After the end of WWI the weaker states were renamed mandate states and was taken care off by parent countries within the League of Nations. The main mandate states were Syria Lebanon Palestine Transjordan Mesopotamia British Togoland French Togoland British Cameroons French Cameroun Ruanda-Urundi Tanganyika South West Africa

Wilsonian Idealism


Wilsonian are words used to describe a certain type of ideological perspective on foreign policy. His ideals were outlined in the 14 points which included self-determination making the US a super power.

I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.

III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.

IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.

V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable government whose title is to be determined.

Territorial issues
VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.

Map of Wilsonian Armenia. The borders decision was made by Wilson
VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.

VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.

IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.

X. The people of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.

XI. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.

XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.

XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.

League of Nations
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Fourteen Points Speech
XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

German Weimar Republic

1919 - 1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The newly formed Weimar constitution had many distinguishing features, one of which was that they were a democratic government as before the war Germany had not been really democratic, this was because the. Kaiser was a dictator

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers

Pope John Paul II

1920 - 2005

Pope Saint John Paul II served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He is called Saint John Paul the Great by some Catholics

New Economic Policy


The New Economic Policy was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin.


1922 - 1943

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

Joseph Stalin

1924 - 1953

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953


1924 - 1966

a 20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images.

1929 stock market crash


Crash of stock market which led to the eventual downfall of countries all across the world leading to a huge economic depression.

Cult of personality prominent


cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician


Approx. 1929 - Approx. 1931

Collectivization was a policy of forced consolidation of individual peasant households into collective farms called “kolkhozes” as carried out by the Soviet government in the late 1920's - early 1930'


1930 - 1950

The Gulag was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.

Joseph Goebbels

1933 - 1945

Paul Joseph Goebbels was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945

Leni Riefenstahl


Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer

Nuremberg Laws


At the annual party rally held in Nuremberg in 1935, the Nazis announced new laws which institutionalized many of the racial theories prevalent in Nazi ideology. The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood."

New racial order


Hitler's program based on racial imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples; the French, an "infereior" Latin people, occupied a middle position, and Slavs and Jews were treated harshly as "subhumans"

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

This war broke out in 1936, and made the new European alignment that found the Western democracies on one side and the fascist states on the other clearer. General Francisco Franco led an army from Spanish Morocco against the republic.

Great Purges

1937 - 1938

This was when Stalin persecuted all those in Russia who he perceived to be a threat, and deemed "enemies of the people". There were millions of deaths, in addition to imprisonment, censorship, and other forms of oppression.

Munich Conference

September 29, 1938

The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact


enemies Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

World War II

1939 - 1945

Europe, Pacific, Atlantic, South-East Asia, China, Middle East, Mediterranean, North Africa and Horn of Africa, briefly North and South America

Allied victory
Collapse of Nazi Germany
Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires
Dissolution of the League of Nations
Creation of the United Nations
Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers
Beginning of the Cold War

Allied Powers Axis Powers
Commanders and leaders

Main Allied leaders:
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
United States Franklin D. Roosevelt
United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Republic of China (1912–1949) Chiang Kai-shek

Main Axis leaders:
Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Empire of Japan Hirohito[b]
Kingdom of Italy Benito Mussolini

Casualties and losses:

Military dead:
Over 16,000,000

Civilian dead:
Over 45,000,000

Total dead:
Over 61,000,000 (1937–45)

Military dead:
Over 8,000,000

Civilian dead:
Over 4,000,000

Total dead:
Over 12,000,000 (1937–45)

Events leading to World War II:
Treaty of Versailles 1919
Treaty of Trianon 1920
Treaty of Rapallo 1920
March on Rome 1922
Corfu incident 1923
Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
Pacification of Libya 1923–1932
Dawes Plan 1924
Locarno Treaties 1925
Chinese Civil War 1927–1936
Young Plan 1929
Great Depression 1929–1941
Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931
Nazis rise to power in Germany 1933
Franco-Soviet-Czech Pact 1935
Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–36
Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
Spanish Civil War 1936–39
Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
Second Sino-Japanese War 1937
Anschluss Mar. 1938
Munich crisis Sep. 1938
German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
Invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
Pact of Steel May 1939
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939
Battle of Britain May. 1940
Invasion of the Soviet Union Jun. 1941
Attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 1941

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most global war in history; it directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of total war, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of which were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, starvation, disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare.

Winston Churchill

1940 - 1945

British politician, army officer, and writer, serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

National mobilization


act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops"
(on July 28, 1914, Tsar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria)

nuclear weapons

1940 - Present

a bomb or missile that uses nuclear energy to cause an explosion. used during WWI by the Americans to destroy japan later developed as a threat for the cold war between Russia and the US

Home front mobilization


Their opponents, known as the Allied forces (or simply the Allies), included the United States, Great Britain, and other countries joining the fight against the Axis military expansion. With war formally declared, Roosevelt took immediate action to build the U.S. military and mobilize the home front.


May 20, 1940

Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II

Operation Barbarossa

June 22, 1941

Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, starting Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II

Wannsee Conference


The Wannsee Conference held on January 20th, 1942, is seen as the meeting where the so-called 'Final Solution' was decided on. The conference at Wannsee was chaired by Reinhard Heydrich with the minutes being taken by Adolf Eichmann

International Monetary Fund

1944 - Present

The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability


1945 - 2013

a late-20th-century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism that represents a departure from modernism and has at its heart a general distrust of grand theories and ideologies as well as a problematical relationship with any notion of “art.”


1945 - 1960

a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.

Yalta Conference

February 1945

The February 1945 Yalta Conference was the second wartime meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the conference, the three leaders agreed to demand Germany's unconditional surrender and began plans for a post-war world.

Marshall Plan

1948 - 1951

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $110 billion in 2016 US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.



The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world



The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European countries based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949

Soviet Blockade


The communist nations closely allied with the Soviet Union, including Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania, whose foreign policies depended on those of the former Soviet Union.

World Bank

1950 - Present

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects

Algeria’s National Liberation Front


The National Liberation Front is a socialist political party in Algeria. It was the principal nationalist movement during the Algerian War

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

Nikita Khrushchev

1955 - 1964

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964

Warsaw Pact

1955 - 1991

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite



the policy of eradicating the memory or influence of Joseph Stalin and Stalinism, especially after 1956.

Austrian Freedom Party


The Freedom Party of Austria is a right-wing populist and national-conservative political party in Austria

European Economic Community

1957 - Present

The European Economic Community was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957.

Basque Separatist movements

1959 - 2011

The Basque conflict, also known as the Spain–ETA conflict, was an armed and political conflict from 1959 to 2011 between Spain and the Basque National Liberation Movement, a group of social and political Basque organizations which sought independence from Spain and France.

Second-wave feminism

1960 - Approx. 1990

Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that began in the United States in the early 1960s and lasted roughly two decades. It quickly spread across the Western world, with an aim to increase equality for women by gaining more than just enfranchisement.

Social Welfare Programs

1960 - 2000

A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system

Second Vatican Council

1962 - 1965

The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.

Revolutions of 1968


Caused by:
Death of Che Guevara

Civil and political rights

Resulted in:
Social revolutions

The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political

Prague Spring


The Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II

French National Front


The National Front is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France

Yom Kippur War


The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War, also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to 25, 1973.

Green Parties start in Birtian


Political party that began during the later part of the twentieth century. exists in a number of western mations and represents many citizens wanting a political party that reflects environmental concerns.

Margaret Thatcher

1979 - 1990

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

Solidarity in Poland


Solidarity was founded in September 1980, was forcibly suppressed by the Polish government in December 1981, and reemerged in 1989 to become the first opposition movement to participate in free elections in a Soviet-bloc nation since the 1940s.

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL is a Russian and former Soviet politician. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991

Perestroika & Glasnost

1986 - 1991

was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform

War in Yugoslavia

1991 - 2001

The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia

Bosnian Muslims

1992 - 1999

Bosnia Muslims were in constant conflict with the serbs and refused to consider them apart of the religion

European Union

1993 - Present

The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km², and an estimated population of over 510 million

World Trade Organization


The World Trade Organization is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade

Irish Nationalism


Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation. It is the Irish version of nationalism. Since the partition of Ireland, the term often refers to support for a united Ireland

Migrant workers


A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work. Migrant workers usually do not have an intention to stay permanently in the country or region in which they work

Chechen Nationalism


Chechnya's separatists have received money, men, training and ideological inspiration from international Islamic organizations, but they remain an indigenous and largely self-sustaining force motivated by nationalist more than Islamic goals