On 7 April 1986 Amstrad announced it had bought from Sinclair Research "...the worldwide rights to sell and manufacture all existing and future Sinclair computers and computer products, together with the Sinclair brand name and those intellectual property rights where they relate to computers and computer related products." which included the ZX Spectrum, for £5 million. This included Sinclair's unsold stock of Sinclair QLs and Spectrums. Amstrad made more than £5 million on selling these surplus machines alone. Amstrad launched two new variants of the Spectrum: the ZX Spectrum +2, based on the ZX Spectrum 128, with a built-in tape drive (like the CPC 464) and, the following year, the ZX Spectrum +3, with a built-in floppy disk drive (similar to the CPC 664 and 6128), taking the 3" disks that many Amstrad machines used.
Founded by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney to operate for Nutting, became Atari Inc. in 1972.
Joe Keenan (subsidiary of Atari Inc. finally merged in Dec 74')
In 1980, Clive Sinclair entered the home computer market with the ZX80 at £99.95, at that time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the United Kingdom. In 1982 the ZX Spectrum was released, becoming the UK's best selling computer, and competing aggressively against Commodore and Amstrad.
On 28 May 1985, Sinclair Research had announced it wanted to raise an extra £10m to £15m to restructure the organisation. Given the loss of confidence in the company, the money proved hard to find. In June 1985, business magnate Robert Maxwell announced a takeover of Sinclair Research, through Hollis Brothers, a subsidiary of his Pergamon Press. However the deal was aborted in August 1985.
The future of Sinclair Research remained uncertain until 7 April 1986, when the company sold its entire computer product range, and the "Sinclair" brand name, to Amstrad for £5 million. The deal did not include the company itself, only its name and products.
The 2800 never captured a large market in Japan. It was released a short time after Nintendo's Family Computer, which became the dominant console in the Japanese video game market of the time.
Codenamed "Cindy", and designed by Atari engineer Joe Tilly, the Atari 2800 had four controller ports instead of the standard two on the Atari 2600's. The controllers are an all-in one design using a combination of an 8-direction digital joystick and a 270-degree paddle, designed by John Amber.
US/EU Master System
(distribution continued by Majesco, as Genesis 3, from 1998 to 1999)
Discontinued in mid 2017 in Japan.
Discontinued in 2013 in Japan.
Sega Genesis, Master System, Game Gear, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo 3DS, iOS, Android, Apple TV
Gamecube port in 2000.
Directors: Eiji Aonuma and Yoshiaki Koizumi
Dir. Eiji Anouma
Wii launch title.
Switch launch title.
Nolan Bushnell, Ted Dabney (under contract for Nutting, they kept the rights to the technology).
Technically the first arcade videogame by weeks.
Designer(s) Bill Pitts, Hugh Tuck.
Platform(s) Arcade (PDP-11)
ZX Spectrum 16K/48K 23 April 1982
ZX Spectrum+ October 1984
ZX Spectrum 128 (Spain) 1985
Wide Screen (1981–1982)
Multi Screen (1982–1989)
New Wide Screen (1982–1991)
Super Color (1984)
Micro Vs. System (1984)
Crystal Screen (1986)
There were 59 different Game & Watch games produced for sale and one that was only available as a contest prize, making 60 in all. The prize game was given to winners of Nintendo's F-1 Grand Prix tournament, a yellow-cased version of Super Mario Bros. that came in a plastic box modeled after the Disk-kun character Nintendo used to advertise their Famicom Disk System. As only 10,000 units were produced and it was never available for retail sale, the yellow version is considered rare.
Mario the Juggler, released in 1991, was the last game created in the Game & Watch series.
JP: April 21, 1989
NA: July 31, 1989
EU: September 28, 1990