The Second Great Awakening was the period of time when religious revivals were occurring. During this time, the principle of salvation through good deeds was emphasized. The revival attracted people of all races and many moral movements such as prison, temperance, and slavery reforms.
Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin removed seeds from cotton fibers. This sped up the process of collecting cotton and resulted in higher production.
This court case strengthened federal authority by stating that Maryland did not have the power to tax the Bank of the United States. This court case questioned whether or not the federal government could establish a national bank. John Marshall brought up the elastic clause when making the decision on this case.
This compromise stated that Missouri would be added to the Union as a slave state and Maine would be added as a free state. This also prohibited slavery north of the 36 30’ line of latitude.
This document was published as a protest against the Tariff of 1828. It warned that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede from the Union. Through this, John Calhoun argued for states’ rights.
The Battle of the Alamo followed a 13-day siege. Mexican troops under General Santa Anna attacked the Alamo Mission. Many Texan defenders were killed. The cruelty of Santa Anna motivated more people to join the Texas army.
Specie Circular was issued by President Jackson. It was issued to stop land speculation caused by the printing of paper money without gold or silver to back it. After this was authorized, sales of public lands went down significantly. However, the Panic of 1837 followed shortly afterwards.
The Trail of Tears is the name of the path the Cherokee Indians took when they were forced to travel over 800 miles to Oklahoma. It is called the Trail of Tears because the majority of the Indians died on the treacherous journey.
This treaty dissolved border disputes between the United States and Britain. The main argument was for the Maine-New Brunswick Border. The border was set at the 49th parallel. The biggest outcome for this treaty was that slavery was banned on the seas.
This treaty ended the Mexican-American War. Its terms included that Mexico was to give up all claims to their land from Texas to California. The total cost of all this was fifteen million dollars.
This treaty between the United States and Britain was an agreement that neither country would obtain rights to the Panama Canal. It was abrogated by the United States in 1881.
This book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe showed the world the horrors of slavery, especially regarding separation of families. This caused agitation which led into the Civil War.
This set up Kansas and Nebraska as official states. Both of these states were to use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. Most of the residents of the states were for slavery so those who were anti-slavery rebelled.
Perry led four ships into the harbor at Tokyo Bay. He did this because he was hoping to establish a trade agreement between Japan and America.
In the Gadsden Purchase, the United States bought what is now Arizona and New Mexico from Mexico. Southerners wanted to obtain this land so that they could build a southern transcontinental railroad. The debate over this purchase exemplified sectional disagreement.
American diplomats met in Ostend, Belgium to suggest that the U.S. could justifiably seize Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.. This outraged many Northerners who saw this as an attempt by the South to ensure slavery.
In the Dred Scott decision, Scott was a black slave who lived with his master in Illinois territory. He sued for his freedom on the grounds that he lived on free territory. This case is important because the Supreme Court ruled that Scott was a slave and not a citizen. Therefore, he could not sue in federal courts.
Hinton Helper was a critic of slavery during this time. The Impending Crisis of the South implicated that slavery hurt the economic well-being of non-slaveowning whites. Helper also argues that slavery would hurt the economy of the people of the South.
John Brown, an abolitionist, seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry in an attempt to end slavery by ending the lives of slave owners. He planned on causing a slave insurrection to free the slaves.
The Confederates fired on Fort Sumter in 1861. This is where the first shots of the Civil War were fired. The Confederates fired when they learned that Lincoln ordered supplies sent to the fort.
Through this document, President Abraham Lincoln declared all slaves in rebelling states free. This was more of a moral victory because slaves were not officially freed until the 13th Amendment was passed.
This was the turning point of the Civil War. After this battle, it was clear that the North was going to win. The South no longer had a chance of winning
Maximilian was made emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III after the French occupied Mexico City. However, Maximilian was soon killed after being installed.
This prohibited all forms of slavery throughout the United States. Confederate states were required to ratify it if they wanted reentrance into the Union.