Timeline: Chapters 12-22


Second Great Awakening

1790 - 1840

The Second Great Awakening was the period of time when religious revivals were occurring. During this time, the principle of salvation through good deeds was emphasized. The revival attracted people of all races and many moral movements such as prison, temperance, and slavery reforms.

Samuel Slater builds 1st U.S. textile factory

December 1790

Cotton Gin Invented


Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin removed seeds from cotton fibers. This sped up the process of collecting cotton and resulted in higher production.

Interchangeable parts invented


Slave trade outlawed in Congress

March 2, 1807

Battle of Plattsburgh

September 11, 1814

Mcculloch v. Maryland

2/22/1819 - 3/6/1819

This court case strengthened federal authority by stating that Maryland did not have the power to tax the Bank of the United States. This court case questioned whether or not the federal government could establish a national bank. John Marshall brought up the elastic clause when making the decision on this case.

Missouri Compromise


This compromise stated that Missouri would be added to the Union as a slave state and Maine would be added as a free state. This also prohibited slavery north of the 36 30’ line of latitude.

House elects John Quincy Adams president

February 9, 1825

The Erie Canal completed

October 26, 1825

The South Carolina Exposition published

December 1828

This document was published as a protest against the Tariff of 1828. It warned that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede from the Union. Through this, John Calhoun argued for states’ rights.

Webster Hayne Debate

January 19, 1830 - January 27, 1830

Garrison publishes the Liberator

January 1, 1831 - December 29, 1865

Bank War

1832 - 1841

The Battle of the Alamo

February 23, 1836 - March 6, 1836

The Battle of the Alamo followed a 13-day siege. Mexican troops under General Santa Anna attacked the Alamo Mission. Many Texan defenders were killed. The cruelty of Santa Anna motivated more people to join the Texas army.

Specie Circular issued

July 11, 1836

Specie Circular was issued by President Jackson. It was issued to stop land speculation caused by the printing of paper money without gold or silver to back it. After this was authorized, sales of public lands went down significantly. However, the Panic of 1837 followed shortly afterwards.

Caroline sunk by British


Trail of Tears

1838 - 1839

The Trail of Tears is the name of the path the Cherokee Indians took when they were forced to travel over 800 miles to Oklahoma. It is called the Trail of Tears because the majority of the Indians died on the treacherous journey.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

August 9, 1842

This treaty dissolved border disputes between the United States and Britain. The main argument was for the Maine-New Brunswick Border. The border was set at the 49th parallel. The biggest outcome for this treaty was that slavery was banned on the seas.

Mexican-American War

April 25, 1846 - February 2, 1848

Wilmot proviso

August 8, 1846

Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo

February 2, 1848

This treaty ended the Mexican-American War. Its terms included that Mexico was to give up all claims to their land from Texas to California. The total cost of all this was fifteen million dollars.

Seneca Falls Convention

July 19, 1848 - July 20, 1848

Compromise of 1850

January 29, 1850

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

April 19, 1850

This treaty between the United States and Britain was an agreement that neither country would obtain rights to the Panama Canal. It was abrogated by the United States in 1881.

Uncle Tom's Cabin published

March 20, 1852

This book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe showed the world the horrors of slavery, especially regarding separation of families. This caused agitation which led into the Civil War.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

May 30, 1853

This set up Kansas and Nebraska as official states. Both of these states were to use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. Most of the residents of the states were for slavery so those who were anti-slavery rebelled.

Commodore Perry opens Japan

July 8, 1853

Perry led four ships into the harbor at Tokyo Bay. He did this because he was hoping to establish a trade agreement between Japan and America.

Gadsden Purchase

December 30, 1853

In the Gadsden Purchase, the United States bought what is now Arizona and New Mexico from Mexico. Southerners wanted to obtain this land so that they could build a southern transcontinental railroad. The debate over this purchase exemplified sectional disagreement.

Ostend Manifesto

October 18, 1854

American diplomats met in Ostend, Belgium to suggest that the U.S. could justifiably seize Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.. This outraged many Northerners who saw this as an attempt by the South to ensure slavery.

Dred Scott Decision

March 6, 1857

In the Dred Scott decision, Scott was a black slave who lived with his master in Illinois territory. He sued for his freedom on the grounds that he lived on free territory. This case is important because the Supreme Court ruled that Scott was a slave and not a citizen. Therefore, he could not sue in federal courts.

Hinton R. Helper publishes the Impending Crisis of the South

June 26, 1857

Hinton Helper was a critic of slavery during this time. The Impending Crisis of the South implicated that slavery hurt the economic well-being of non-slaveowning whites. Helper also argues that slavery would hurt the economy of the people of the South.

Lincoln-Douglas debates

August 21, 1858 - October 15, 1858

Brown raids harpers ferry

October 16, 1859 - October 18, 1859

John Brown, an abolitionist, seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry in an attempt to end slavery by ending the lives of slave owners. He planned on causing a slave insurrection to free the slaves.

Confederate government formed

February 1861

Lincoln takes office

March 4, 1861

Fort Sumter fired upon

April 12, 1861

The Confederates fired on Fort Sumter in 1861. This is where the first shots of the Civil War were fired. The Confederates fired when they learned that Lincoln ordered supplies sent to the fort.

Merrimack and Monitor Battle

March 8, 1862 - March 9, 1862

Seven Day's Battle

June 25, 1862 - July 1, 1862

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1, 1863

Through this document, President Abraham Lincoln declared all slaves in rebelling states free. This was more of a moral victory because slaves were not officially freed until the 13th Amendment was passed.

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1, 1863 - July 3, 1863

This was the turning point of the Civil War. After this battle, it was clear that the North was going to win. The South no longer had a chance of winning

Archduke Maximilian installed as emperor of Mexico


Maximilian was made emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III after the French occupied Mexico City. However, Maximilian was soon killed after being installed.

Sherman's March to the Sea

November 15, 1864 - December 21, 1864

Lee surrenders at Appomattox

April 9, 1865

13th Amendment ratified

December 6, 1865

This prohibited all forms of slavery throughout the United States. Confederate states were required to ratify it if they wanted reentrance into the Union.