When we compare cultures, governments, and social structure to the Roman empire we can see how much Romans influenced modern society.
This story drove Romans to keep the power out of the hands of one person, because they could not guarantee if they'd be a good leader. They created a republic form of government in which the lower class was part of the lawmaking branch.
The Roman society faced it's first taste of how the world works. They had to conquer surrounding cities and people to create a buffer between them and their enemies.
Julius Caesar is elected as the pro consul of Rome, which is the highest position in the government. He is given imperium in Gaul, and has a successful campaign conquering the territory.
Caesar is elected for a second term since his first term was successful, and so he finishes his campaign in Gaul. As his imperium comes to an end, he makes the decision to break Imperium law and marches through Rome and takes over the empire, which is the first time Rome has had a single ruler in several hundred years.
A few members of the Senate create a plan to kill Caesar because of the roman value of having a republic with power spread equally, rather than a tyrant who takes the power.
Augustus Octavian is given unrestrained Imperium throughout Rome. He closes the doors to the Temple of Janus which have been open for generations. Closing the doors signifies peace throughout the Roman empire.
Augustus passes all of his powers and political positions to his heir, which is the successful transition from a Roman Republic to an empire, which goes against what the Romans had fought for centuries to stay away from, which they willingly moved to.
Claudius convinced the senate of bribed guards to make him emperor after the previous one had been executed. He began the aqueduct project which brought clean water into the city and into private homes, which helped with cleanliness and disease.
Nero implemented high taxes to pay for lavish palaces and gardens for the royals and upper class citizens to enjoy. He was the adopted son of Claudius, and had his mother killed when he wouldn't give her power in the empire. After his suicide, he left the empire without an heir which allowed for civil war to break out once again
Disease and famine wiped out a third of the Roman population, which lowered army numbers and people available to tax. The Romans had to rely on mercenaries to do their conquering, which they soon discovered that they only need the government to give them their wages, and so they began taking over Rome.
The Byzantine empire begins to rise, which is a heavy combination of Greek and Roman culture. This helped keep the cultures alive in western civilization
Rome was taken over by Germanic tribes after it fell. After hundreds of years of being a strong civilization, the western half of Rome fell, which led to the creation of the Byzantine empire
After the Byzantines defeated Persia, the Arabians invaded both Persia and Byzantine, which took away most of their land, wealth, and began the spread of Islam