The Early Modern Era


Transatlantic Slave Trade

1444 - 1807

Slaves from Africa were forced out and shipped between three continents. Europe exchanged goods with Africa for slaves in which then Europe had traded slaves with America so that they could be sold. This is also known as "Triangular Trade," There were about 17 million slaves involved and it lasted almost three centuries.

Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press.


By inventing the printing press, it opened doors into a better education for people as literacy stepped up its game as books and other educational resources were able to be printed easily and available quickly.

Ottomans conquer the Byzantine empire.


The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman army under Sultan Mehmed ii.

Christopher Columbus starts his journey into the Americas


Columbus had sailed from Spain westward and reached the Bahamian islands first in which he discovered the New World.

Martin Luther begins the Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Martin Luther wanted to modify the beliefs and customs of the Roman Catholic Church and had created the 95 Theses. The Catholic Church then divided and the Protestant religion had launched in Europe.

The Spanish conquer the Aztecs


Hernando Cortes had his army conquer the Aztecs. The spainiards highly disliked the way Montezuma led his empire to religious mythology of human sacrifice before gods.

Babur rules Mughal Empire in India


Babur overthrew Ibrahim Kahn in which he then became ruler and established the Mughal empire.

The Spaniards conquer the Inca.


Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas looking for wealth the Incas did very well with valuable, famous sites such as Machu Picchu.

English and Dutch start trade colonies in India.

1602 - 1800

The Dutch East India Company and English East India company was created in which they funded trade and exploration as trade agreements were created. This had created an expanded trade enterprise between Asia and Europe.

Jamestown settled by English.


First settlement in Americas located in Virginia in which the British had control of.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

A deadly war throughput central Europe. It was between the Catholics and Protestants and power was wanted to the European ruling families. Power was in jeopardy in Europe as the Holy Roman Empire lost a lot of its power.

Industrial Revolution begins

1760 - 1840

Manufacturing had improved greatly. The economy had experienced a great increase and roads, highways, steam engines came into play. This began the era of urbanization in the UK.

The signing of the Declaration of Independence.


America had become a country and the thirteen colonies were no longer under control of the British. America gained its independence.

Denmark bans slave trade in Africa


First European state that did not take part in slave trade from Africa as the expenses got too high for bringing enslaved Africans overseas.

Latin America Revolution against Spain


Spain had huge control over Latin America. In Latin America, they had great coffee, and many other goods but they were restricted to only be able to trade with Spain which was a big drawback for their economy, In 1810, they started the overthrow of the Spanish rule so there could be a fair, independent societies.